The Faculty of Linguistics conducts research in several areas of Linguistics and Computational Linguistics. The projects themselves are detailed in their respective sections. Additionally, the faculty runs extensive and long-term research in special research fields.

The faculty has distinguished itself internationally through its research groups "Basic Linguistic Theories for Computational Linguistics" (SFB 340) and "Linguistic Data Structures" (SFB 441) in the past, and is directly involved with the new research group "Dynamic and Adaptive Language Structures". The international reputation of the Faculty of Linguistics in the fields of both theoretical and computational linguistics is documented in the publications of its staff members and international vital points of the field.

Students are introduced to the faculty's research programme through research assistantship positions granted to students starting their second year. These assistantships are granted based on individual qualifications and experience.