Previous issues: #1 (28.Sept.96),  #2 (23.Dec.96),  #3 (23.May.97),  #4 (17.Sept.97)

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/  / /  /  / /  /  / /         ________/  / /  /  /______/ / /
/__/ /  /__/ /  /__/ /         /__________/ /  /___________/ /
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|___| |   | /___  |___   |    |   |___       Issue 5, 19.Dec.1997



### Editorial

Dear Colleagues,

welcome to the Christmas 97 edition of the HPSG Gazette.

Two issues ago, we mentioned that certain sections of the Gazette, the calls for papers and the information on upcoming events, more or less duplicate information already collected elsewhere. We thus suggested dropping these sections in future editions. Since we did not receive any objections to this idea, we have now gone ahead and trimmed down the Gazette; only those CFPs which were explicitly sent to us are included at the end of the news section. For general information on CFPs and upcoming events, we recommend the following three sources:

The next issue of the Gazette will appear in March. Please remember to send all HPSG-related information to the usual address:

gazette@sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de

Merry Christmas and A Happy New Year!
Fröhliche Weihnachten und ein gesundes neues Jahr!
Wesolych Swiat i Szczesliwego Nowego Roku!

Detmar Meurers

### Reports On Conferences, Workshops, Etc.

#### Second Conference on Formal Description of Slavic Languages (FDSL 2)

The second international conference on formal description of Slavic languages took place in Potsdam, Germany, on 20-22 November 1997. The program included the following HPSG-related presentations:

• Tania Avgustinova (Computerlinguistik, Universität des Saarlandes):
"Clustering Clitics in Bulgarian Nominal Constituents"

• Tania Avgustinova/Wojciech Skut (Computerlinguistik, Universität des Saarlandes):
"Encoding Common Slavic Linguistic Knowledge in HPSG"

• Gerald Penn (Universität Tübingen):
"On the Plausibility of Purely Structural Multiple WH-Fronting"

"On Complements and Adjuncts in Polish"

#### Fifth Meeting on Mathematics of Language (MOL 5)

The fifth meeting on mathematics of language (MOL5) took place at Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany on August 25-27, 1997. The program included the following HPSG-related presentations:

• Drew Moshier (Chapman University)
"How to Solve Domain Equations Involving Path Equations"

• Gerald Penn (Unidersität Tübingen)
"Parametric Types for Typed Attribute Value Logic"

### News

#### Philip Miller's thesis available electronically

A postscript version of Philip Miller's PhD "Clitics and Constituents in Phrase Structure Grammar" (University of Utrecht, 1991) can be found at

http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/pmiller or ftp://iridia.ulb.ac.be/pmiller

It was originally published by Garland in 1992, but has been out of print for a while.

#### Job openings at Univ. of Tübingen

The Division of Computational Linguistics in the Dept. of Linguistics at the University of Tübingen, Germany is searching for

two theoretical or computational linguists

to work in a project of the Sonderforschungsbereich 340 Theoretische Grundlagen der Computerlinguistik''. The project is concerned with the development, formalization, and implementation of a large syntax fragment for German in combination with a constraint logic programming language for this purpose. It continues the work carried out in the projects B4 and B8, cf., http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/sfb/

Applicants should have either one of the following qualifications:

1. strong background in the syntax of German, good knowledge of HPSG, and an interest in the formalization and implementation of a large German syntax fragment.

2. intimate knowledge of the theory and implementation of constraint resolution and an interest in applying this knowledge to the linguistic domain of constraints on word order.
The positions are at the rank of "Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter" (M.A. or Ph.D. required). The salary is on the German payscale of BAT IIa/2 (with M.A. in hand) or BATIIa (with Ph.D. in hand). The positions are funded for three years (until December 2000). Applications should include CV, an outline of research experience/interests, and names and addresses of two referees. A sample publication representative of the applicant's research expertise would be helpful.

Applications should be sent by mail or email to the address below. Those received by January 31st, 1998 will receive full consideration, although interviews may start at any time.

Dale Gerdemann and Erhard W. Hinrichs
Seminar fuer Sprachwissenschaft, Abt. Computerlinguistik
Eberhard-Karls Universität Tübingen
Kleine Wilhelmstr. 113
D-72074 Tübingen, Germany

In case of equal qualifications, preference will be given to persons with disabilities.

The University of Tübingen strives to increase the representation of female scientists. Women are, therefore, especially encouraged to apply.

#### New version of diagram display engine Thistle

The Language Technology Group is pleased to announce the release of version 1.4beta of the diagram display engine and editor Thistle. Here are some of the more conspicuous changes:
• New graphical primitives: dendrograms, fractions and Cooper boxes.

• Step-time animation of sequences of diagrams

• Subparts of diagrams may be folded'
There have also been many minor improvements and corrections to programming errors, and enhancements or additions to existing diagram classes.

Descriptions of Thistle and many example pages are available from

#### Joint conference on Formal Grammar, HPSG, and CG (CFP)

Joint conference on

FORMAL GRAMMAR,
AND CATEGORIAL GRAMMAR

August 14-16, 1998,
Saarbrueken, Germany

FIRST CALL FOR PAPERS

FHCG-98 combines the 4th conference on Formal Grammar and the 5th conference on Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar. It precedes the 10th European Summer School in Logic, Language, and Information (ESSLLI X).

AIMS and SCOPE
FHCG-98 hopes to provide a platform for presentation of new and original research on formal grammar, head-driven phrase structure grammar, and categorial grammar.

Themes of interest include, but are not limited to,

• formal and computational syntax, semantics, and pragmatics;
• head-driven phrase structure grammar and categorial grammar;
• model-theoretic and proof-theoretic methods in linguistics;
• constraint-based and resource-sensitive approaches to grammar;
• foundational, methodological and architectural issues in grammar.

SPECIAL SESSIONS and INVITED SPEAKERS
The conference will feature a number of special sessions and invited speakers. The second call for papers will provide details on how to submit for the special sessions.

SUBMISSION DETAILS
We invite E-MAIL submissions of abstracts for 30-minute papers (including questions and comments).

A submission should consist of two parts:

• an information sheet (in ascii), containing the name of the author(s), affiliation(s), e-mail and postal address(es) and a title;
• an abstract, consisting of a description of not more than 5 pages (including figures and references). Abstracts may be either in plain ASCII or in (unix-compatible encoded) postscript, PDF, or DVI.
Abstracts can be sent to

fg@ufal.mff.cuni.cz (Geert-Jan M. Kruijff)

March, 15, 1998

May, 15, 1998

PROCEEDINGS
A full version of the accepted paper will be included in the conference
proceedings, to be distributed at the conference. Full papers are due
July, 1, 1998.

PUBLICATION
Pending final approval by the publisher, a selected number of papers
will be published as a volume of the recently started CSLI-series
"Studies in Constraint-Based Lexicalism", with series editors Andreas
Kathol, Jean-Pierre Koenig and Sam Mchombo. There will be a separate
round of submission and reviewing for this volume after the conference.

PROGRAMME COMMITTEE
Gosse Bouma (Groningen, Chair)
Richard Oehrle (Arizona, Chair)
Klaus Netter (DFKI, Local Arrangements)
Geert-Jan Kruijff (Prague, Submissions)

Anne Abeille (Paris)
Bob Kasper (Ohio State)
Bob Carpenter (Bell Labs)
Andreas Kathol (UC Berkeley)
John Coleman (Oxford)
Shalom Lappin (London)
Ann Copestake (CSLI)
Glyn Morrill (Barcelona)
Mary Dalrymple (Xerox Parc)
Tsuneko Nakazawa (Tokyo)
Elisabeth Engdahl (Gotenborg)
Anton Nijholt (Twente)
Daniele Godard (Paris)
Gertjan van Noord (Groningen)
Erhard Hinrichs (Tuebingen)
Carl Pollard (Ohio State)
Jack Hoeksema (Groningen)

FURTHER INFORMATION
Web site for ESSLLI X: http://top.coli.uni-sb.de/esslli/
Web site for FHCG-98 : http://www.dfki.de/events/hpsg98/

The organizers:
Gosse Bouma (chair) gosse@let.rug.nl
Dick Oehrle (chair) rto@chol.douglass.arizona.edu
Klaus Netter (local arrangements) klaus.netter@dfki.de
Geert-Jan Kruijff (paper submissions) gj@ufal.mff.cuni.cz

#### Current topics in constraint-based theories of germanic syntax

ESSLLI-98 Workshop on
CURRENT TOPICS IN CONSTRAINT-BASED THEORIES OF GERMANIC SYNTAX
August 17 - 21, 1998

A workshop held as part of the 10th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI-98) August 17 - 28, 1998, Saarbrueken, Germany

FIRST CALL FOR PAPERS

ORGANIZERS: Tibor Kiss and Detmar Meurers (IBM Germany and Univ. Tübingen)

Web site: http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~esslli98/workshops.html

BACKGROUND:
A number of approaches to Germanic languages (excluding English) have been developed in constraint-based theories like HPSG and LFG. Apart from the issue of empirical adequacy, formal issues were raised, among them:

• the nature of complex predicates and the mechanisms used to formalize them
• linearization versus movement analyses of various phenomena
• the nature of functional projections
• configurational and non-configurational properties of scope determination
The idea of this workshop is to provide a forum to present and discuss current approaches exploring such empirical and formal issues of the syntax of Germanic languages (excluding English). Focusing on Germanic rather than on a particular syntactic theory is intended to allow for more inter-framework discussion.

WORKSHOP FORMAT:
The workshop will consist of five sessions, with two 30+10-minute presentations in each session.

SUBMISSION:
All researchers in the area, but especially Ph.D. students and young researchers, are encouraged to submit an extended abstract of 2000-3000 words either as hardcopy or electronically (postscript only).

The accepted papers will be made available in a summer school reader. If sufficiently many high-quality papers are submitted, we intend to publish them in an edited volume.

Submissions should be sent before 15 February 1998 to one of the following two organizers:

Tibor Kiss
IBM Germany
Vangerowstr. 18
D-69115 Heidelberg
Germany
tibor@heidelbg.ibm.com

Detmar Meurers
Universität Tübingen
Seminar fuer Sprachwissenschaft
Kleine Wilhelmstr. 113
D-72074 Tübingen
Germany
dm@sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de

REGISTRATION:
Workshop contributors will be required to register for ESSLLI-98, but they will be eligible for a reduced registration fee.

IMPORTANT DATES:
Feb 15, 98: Deadline for submissions
Apr 15, 98: Notification of acceptance
May 15, 98: Deadline for final copy
Aug 17, 98: Start of workshop

FURTHER INFORMATION:

#### Mutual knowledge, common ground and public information

ESSLLI-98 Workshop on
MUTUAL KNOWLEDGE, COMMON GROUND AND PUBLIC INFORMATION
August 24 - 28, 1998

A workshop held as part of the 10th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI-98) August 17 - 28, 1998, Saarbrueken, Germany

FIRST CALL FOR PAPERS

ORGANISERS: Wolfgang Heydrich and Hannes Rieser (Hamburg/Bielefeld)

Web site: http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~esslli98/workshops.html

BACKGROUND
The topic of the workshop is in the common focus of several disciplines: cognitive science, linguistic pragmatics & semantics, philosophical logic, AI, and psychology. It concerns research in areas like discourse analysis, coordination, presupposition and accomodation, as well as the formal reconstruction of dialogue and interaction. There are obvious connections to problems of group-epistemology and general (philosophical) concepts like intersubjectivity. The topic constitutes a field of discussion where empirical and formal methodologies meet (from controlled experiments and discourse analysis to, say, non-well-founded set theory).

We invite contributions from all the fields mentioned above, which may focus on:

• foundational problems (epistemic logic, social ontology, set theory),
• descriptive and experimental work in psychology, linguistics and ethnomethodology,
• applications in models of agent's behaviour based on e.g., intention analysis, Gricean accounts or speech act theory,
• computer simulation implementing the concepts mentioned.
WORKSHOP FORMAT:
The workshop will consist of five sessions (90 min. each) of presentation and discussion of contributed papers. It will take place during the second week of the Summer School and will be open to all members of the LLI community.

SUBMISSIONS:
All reserchers in the area, but especially Ph.D. students and young reserachers, are encouraged to submit a two-page abstract (hard copies or by e-mail) to one of the following addresses:

Prof.Dr. Hannes Rieser
University of Bielefeld
Fak. Lili
Postfach 100131
D-33501 Bielefeld
Germany
rieser@lili.uni-bielefeld.de
phone: 0049-521-1063666
fax: 0049-521-1062996

PD Dr. Wolfgang Heydrich
University of Hamburg
Germanisches Seminar
Von-Melle-Park 6
D-20146 Hamburg
Germany
heydrich@lili.uni-bielefeld.de
phone: 0049-40-4222501
fax: 0049-40-4222603

The deadline for submission of abstracts is February 15, 1998. Notification of contributors will be given around April 15, 1998.

Contributors of selected papers will be asked to provide extended abstracts (five pages) to be distributed as work-shop notes. The deadline for submission of extended abstracts is May 15, 98.

REGISTRATION:
Workshop contributors will be required to register for ESSLLI-98, but they will be elligible for a reduced registration fee.

IMPORTANT DATES:
Feb 15, 98: Deadline for submissions
Apr 15, 98: Notification of acceptance
May 15, 98: Deadline for final copy
Aug 17, 98: Start of workshop

FURTHER INFORMATION:

#### Machine Translation

ESSLLI-98 Workshop on
MACHINE TRANSLATION
August 24 - 28, 1998

A workshop held as part of the 10th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI-98) August 17 - 28, 1998, Saarbrueken, Germany

FIRST CALL FOR PAPERS

ORGANIZER: Frank Van Eynde (K.U. Leuven)

Web site: http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~esslli98/workshops.html

BACKGROUND:
The Programme of ESSLLI-98 (Saarbruecken, August 17-28, 1998) features a workshop on Machine Translation, to be held during the second week of the School. As in the case of the other ESSLLI workshops its main aim is to provide a forum for advanced Ph.D. students and other researchers to present and discuss their work.

Machine Translation is, of course, a rather large topic. In a sense, there is not a single branch of computational or formal linguistics which is not directly or indirectly relevant to it. In order to arrive at a reasonably coherent programme for the workshop it is therefore proposed to focus on a limited number of topics.

1. Formal Theories of Translation
There are many theories of translation (esp. in literary criticism), but few of the theories are sufficiently explicit and formalized to provide a useful frame of reference for MT. A notable exception is the one presented in M.T. Rosetta. Compositional Translation (Kluwer, 1994), recently reviewed in JoLLI. Contributions on this theme can take the form of replies to M.T. Rosetta or of presentations of an alternative formal theory of translation.

2. Computational Semantics and Machine Translation
The importation of methods and analyses from formal and computational semantics has proved useful for modeling the translation of such notoriously difficult expressions as determiners, pronouns, negation and tense/aspect markers. Of potential interest for MT is also the recent attention in computational semantics for the modeling of reasoning on the basis of underspecified representations. The contextual disambiguation of word senses, for instance, could be seen as a form of reasoning with underspecified semantic representations. Presentations on this theme can take the form of new contributions in one of these areas.

3. Competence-based vs. performance-based models for MT
As in other fields of natural language processing, there has been a growing interest in the use of probabilistic techniques during the last decade, leading to a shift from rule- or constraint-based models to corpus-based or example-based models. Contributions are invited which report on the use of probabilistic techniques in translation systems (notice the emphasis on MT, rather than on NLP in general).

4. Machine Translation of Spoken Language
Till a few years ago, virtually all MT efforts concerned the translation of written language, but the recent rise of interest (and funding) in speech processing has changed this: most of the currently started MT efforts explicitly aim at the translation of spoken language. Contributions on this theme should report on work in this field, preferably on those aspects which are in the intersection of speech processing and MT (rather in their union).

5. Translator's tools
There is a school of thought in MT which dismisses the efforts to arrive at Fully Automatic High Quality Translation (FAHQT) as misguided and wasteful. What should be aimed at instead is the development of tools for human translators, such as smart text editors, on-line access to multilingual dictionaries and term banks, automatic recognition of multi-word units, and the like. A recent survey of this work can be found in the special issue of Machine Translation on New Tools for Human Translators (Volume 12, nos. 1-2, 1997). Contributions on this topic should report on original work in this field.

For all five of the topics, but especially for the last three, contributors are encouraged to include a demo, either as part of the presentation, or as an extra, at the end of the session.

WORKSHOP FORMAT:
There will be 5 sessions of 90 minutes, each containing three slots of 30 minutes. Some of these slots will be assigned to invited speakers, but the large majority will be assigned on the basis of submitted proposals.

SUBMISSIONS:
All researchers in the area, but especially Ph.D. students and young researchers, are encouraged to submit a proposal. Proposals should include

1. Name, affiliation, address, e-mail of the submitter(s)
2. An indication of which of the 5 themes will be addressed
3. Two-page abstract of a paper
4. If applicable, requirements for the demo

They should be sent to

Frank Van Eynde
Centrum voor Computerlinguistiek - K.U.Leuven
Maria-Theresiastraat 21, B - 3000 Leuven, Belgium
frank.vaneynde@ccl.kuleuven.ac.be
fralau@iol.it
fax : +32/16/325098

REGISTRATION:
Workshop contributors will be required to register for ESSLLI-98, but they
will be eligible for a reduced registration fee.

IMPORTANT DATES:
Feb 15, 98: Deadline for submissions
Apr 15, 98: Notification of acceptance
May 15, 98: Deadline for final copy
Aug 24, 98: Start of workshop

FURTHER INFORMATION:

#### Lexical semantics in context: corpus, inference and discourse

ESSLLI-98 Workshop on
LEXICAL SEMANTICS IN CONTEXT: CORPUS, INFERENCE AND DISCOURSE
August 17 - 21, 1998

A workshop held as part of the 10th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI-98) August 17 - 28, 1998, Saarbrueken, Germany

FIRST CALL FOR PAPERS

ORGANIZERS: Johan Bos (Saarbruecken) and Paul Buitelaar (Brandeis University)

Web site: http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~esslli98/workshops.html

BACKGROUND:
The workshop aims at bringing together research in two complementary fields of semantic analysis that are still too far apart. In order to achieve both a broad and a deep understanding of any given text document, a system needs both advanced acquisition of corpus specific lexical semantic knowledge and powerful inference mechanisms that utilize that knowledge in discourse analysis. Given the still relatively limited results within both areas there has been little impetus to combine them. Corpus-based extraction of lexical semantic knowledge has only recently become a more feasible task, because of the growing availibility of on-line text documents; robust corpus processing technologies, such as broad coverage part-of-speech tagging and shallow parsing; and readily available statistical methods. The various approaches to discourse analysis, originating in such diverse fields as formal semantics, psychology and AI, are in the process of converging into a unified approach to the analysis and representation of the cohesive structure of natural language documents.

The intersection between these two fields lies in the application of lexical semantic knowledge to such problems in discourse analysis as anaphora resolution and discourse segmentation. In fact, the benefit will be mutual, because knowledge of discourse structure is helpful to lexical knowledge extraction as well.

In summary, large scale domain specific lexical semantic knowledge acquisition can assist in analyzing discourse structures, which in turn can assist in acquiring even more accurate lexical semantic representations for the relevant terms in the domain.

WORKSHOP FORMAT:
The workshop will consist of five sessions, with two or three 20+10-minute presentations in each session. Additionally, a number of invited talks will be given by members of the program committee, while also some time will be set aside for general discussion of the topic of the workshop.

PROGRAM COMMITTEE:
Submitted papers will be reviewed by the organizers and the following program committee:

Bran Boguraev
Ann Copestake
Daniel Kayser
Alex Lascarides
Manfred Pinkal
Massimo Poesio
James Pustejovsky

SUBMISSION:
It should be stressed that we especially encourage those contributions that address aspects of the integration of all three areas of research mentioned above (lexical semantics, discourse analysis and corpus-based approaches to both of these).

The accepted papers will be made available in a summer school reader. Publication in an edited volume is under discussion.

All researchers in the area, but especially Ph.D. students and young researchers, are encouraged to submit an extended abstract (4 to 5 pages), preferably by email and in postscript.

Submissions should be sent before February 15, 1998 to one of the following
two organizers:

Johan Bos
University of the Saarland
Dept. of Computational Linguistics
Postfach 15 11 50
D-66041 Saarbruecken
Germany
bos@coli.uni-sb.de

Paul Buitelaar
Brandeis University
Department of Computer Science
Waltham, MA 02254
USA
paulb@cs.brandeis.edu

REGISTRATION:
Workshop contributors will be required to register for ESSLLI-98, but they will be elligible for a reduced registration fee.

IMPORTANT DATES:
Feb 15, 98: Deadline for submissions
Apr 15, 98: Notification of acceptance
May 15, 98: Deadline for final copy
Aug 17, 98: Start of workshop

FURTHER INFORMATION:

### Abstracts of Papers, MA and Ph.D. Projects

#### Shuly Wintner, Evgeniy Gabrilovich and Nissim Francez: "Amalia - A Unified Platform for Parsing and Generation"

Contemporary linguistic theories (in particular, HPSG) are declarative in nature: they specify constraints on permissible structures, not how such structures are to be computed. Grammars designed under such theories are, therefore, suitable for both parsing and generation. However, practical implementations of such theories don't usually support bidirectional processing of grammars. We present a grammar development system that includes a compiler of grammars (for parsing and generation) to abstract machine instructions, and an interpreter for the abstract machine language. The generation compiler inverts input grammars (designed for parsing) to a form more suitable for generation. The compiled grammars are then executed by the interpreter using one control strategy, regardless of whether the grammar is the original or the inverted version. We thus obtain a unified, efficient platform for developing reversible grammars.

Proceedings of Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing, Tzigov Chark, Bulgaria, 11-13 September 1997. Available from: http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly/publications/ranlp.ps.gz

#### Shuly Wintner: "The affixal nature of the definite article in Hebrew"

This paper provides evidence for the affixal nature of the Hebrew definite article, ha'. Usually considered a stand-alone word or a clitic, the rules that govern the combination of the article with nominals are viewed as part of the syntax. This paper suggests an alternative analysis by which it is attached to its host nominals through a morphological process. Several arguments, from all levels of linguistic representation, are provided. First, accepted criteria for wordhood reveal the clear dependent behavior of the definite article. Then, its affixal characteristics are discussed: phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic considerations support such a view. Furthermore, it is shown that treatment of the definite article as an affix facilitates the construction of both syntactic and semantic theories for Hebrew. In the framework of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, a single lexical rule accounts for the combination of the article with various types of nominals. An HPSG grammar for a fragment of Hebrew, focusing on noun phrases, is presented, in which the affixal view of the definite article is integrated.

Presented at Computational Linguistics in the Netherlands (CLIN-97), Nijmegen, 12 December, 1997

#### David Johnson and Shalom Lappin: "Local Constraints vs. Local Economy"

David Johnson and I have just completed the draft of a new paper, "Local Constraints vs. Local Economy", in which we compare recently proposed models of local economy with pure local constraint grammars. We argue that there is no conceptual or empirical support for incorporating local economy principles into the linguistic theory. We also compare the relation between syntactic structure and interface representations in both global and local economy versions of the Minimalist Program (MP) on one hand, and local constraint/incremental correspondence theories on the other. We take HPSG as a paradigm of the latter framework, and we argue that it provides a more successful treatment of the expletive and raising structures which MP theorists have used to support economy principles. We conclude that the fact that these stuctures are acutely problematic for the MP is an artifact of the interface-final architecture which it imposes on grammar. These problems do not arise in an incremental correspondence framework like HPSG, where semantic and phonological representations are built up in strict parallelism with syntactic structure. An extended abstract of the paper, and gzipped ps and Word Perfect 5.2 files are available from the SOAS HPSG Ellipsis Project web site, URL http://semantics.soas.ac.uk/ellip. We welcome your comments and discussion. Regards.
Shalom

#### Stefan Riezler: "Probabilistic Constraint Logic Programming"

This paper addresses two central problems for probabilistic processing models: parameter estimation from incomplete data and efficient retrieval of most probable analyses. These questions have been answered satisfactorily only for probabilistic regular and context-free models. We address these problems for a more expressive probabilistic constraint logic programming model.

We present a log-linear probability model for probabilistic constraint logic programming. On top of this model we define an algorithm to estimate the parameters and to select the properties of log-linear models from incomplete data. This algorithm is an extension of the improved iterative scaling algorithm of Della-Pietra, Della-Pietra and Lafferty (1995). Our algorithm applies to log-linear models in general and is accompanied with suitable approximation methods when applied to large data spaces. Furthermore, we present an approach for searching for most probable analyses of the probabilistic constraint logic programming model. This method can be applied to the ambiguity resolution problem in constraint-based grammar applications.

Arbeitspapiere des Sonderforschungsbereichs 340, Bericht Nr. 117,
Seminar fuer Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Tübingen, Oktober 1997.
Available from http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~riezler/117.ps and http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cmp-lg/9711001

#### G.I. Right: "Some fundamental aspects of enormously good syntax"

In this paper I present and defend some of the major general restrictive assumptions of enormously good syntax (EGS):

(a) In EGS, there is nothing bad or wrong. The major mistakes linguists made in former frameworks were due to the fact that they didn't recognize the need to exclude mistakes. To do so appears to be the optimal hypothesis, and I argue that we have no reason to depart from it.

(b) Lack of mistakes in EGS is due to a single restrictive principle of core grammar, which economically states: do it right (DIR). The DIR guarantees that every rule that doesn't rule is ruled out. This can be seen as the final conclusion of the minimalist program, since the minimalist grammar is further reduced to that part which got it right.

(c) I argue that theories of binding can be better treated in the more restrictive derivational framework of EGS. Applying the DIR to the derivational history of representations ensures the operational correctness of corresponding logical processing.

(d) In computer science, it has long been recognized that those programs are most effective which are correct. With the DIR this desirable property falls out as a corollary.

(e) Having eliminated the representational overhead of wrong predictions, linguistic theory might find itself in a position to make significant contributions to related fields. For example, it is well conceivable that the essential correctness of grammars in the EGS framework might provide the basis for the solution of the universal halting problem.

### Bibliographic Information

The following is the alphabetical list of the bibliographical information submitted to Stefan Müller's HPSG Bibliography page at

http://cl-www.dfki.uni-sb.de/HPSG/

since the previous issue of the Gazette. The full HPSG bibliography can be found at the above address.

@techreport{Backofen:Krieger:ea:93,
author       = "Rolf Backofen and Hans-Ulrich Krieger and
Stephen P.~Spackman and Hans {Uszkoreit (eds.)}",
institution  = "German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence
(DFKI)",
month        = "mar",
number       = "D-93-27",
title        = "Report of the {EAGLES} Workshop on Implemented
Formalisms at DFKI, Saarbr\"ucken",
year         = "1993"
}

@inproceedings{Brew:95,
author       = "Chris Brew",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of the 7th Conference of the {EACL}",
email        = "Chris.Brew@edinburgh.ac.uk",
homepage     = "http://www.cogsci.ed.ac.uk/~chrisbr/",
title        = "Stochastic {HPSG}",
year         = "1995"
}

@techreport{Czuba:Przepiorkowski:95,
author       = "Krzysztof Czuba and Adam Przepi{\'o}rkowski",
homepage     = "http://www.ipipan.waw.pl/mmgroup/hpsg.html",
institution  = "Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy
of Sciences",
month        = "aug",
number       = "783",
title        = "Agreement and Case Assignment in {Polish}:
An Attempt at a Unified Account",
year         = "1995"
}
@inproceedings{Diagne:Kasper:ea:95,
author       = "Abdel Kader Diagne and Walter Kasper and Hans-Ulrich
Krieger",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop
on Parsing Technologies, IWPT-95",
note         = "Also available as DFKI Research Report RR-95-19",
pages        = "79--86",
title        = "Distributed Parsing with {HPSG} Grammars",
year         = "1995"
}

@techreport{Dorna:Eberle:ea:94,
author       = "M. Dorna and K. Eberle and C. J. Rupp",
institution  = "Univerit\"at Stuttgart",
month        = "November",
number       = "39",
title        = "Semantik-orientierter rekursiver Transfer in HPSG
am Beispiel des Referenzdialogs",
type         = "Verbmobil Report",
url          = "http://www.dfki.de/cgi-bin/verbmobil/htbin/decode.cgi/share/VM-depot/FTP-SERVER/vm-reports/report-39-94.ps.gz",
year         = "1994"
}

@phdthesis{Eynde:94,
author       = "Frank Van Eynde",
email        = "frank.vaneynde@ccl.kuleuven.ac.be",
homepage     = "http://www.ccl.kuleuven.ac.be/~frank/",
month        = "December",
note         = "Hard copies can be obtained from the
Centrale Bibliotheek, Ruildienst,
21, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.",
school       = "Faculteit Letteren, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven",
title        = "Auxiliaries and verbal affixes.
A monostratal cross-linguistic analysis",
type         = "Habilitationsschrift",
year         = "1994"
}

@inproceedings{Eynde:96,
author       = "Frank Van Eynde",
booktitle    = "CLIN VI. Papers from the Sixth CLIN Meeting",
email        = "frank.vaneynde@ccl.kuleuven.ac.be",
editor       = "G. Durieux, W. Daelemans, S. Gillis",
homepage     = "http://www.ccl.kuleuven.ac.be/~frank/",
organization = "University of Antwerp",
pages        = "231-248",
publisher    = "Center for Dutch Language and Speech",
title        = "An {HPSG} treatment of IT-Extraposition without
lexical rules",
url          = "http://www.ccl.kuleuven.ac.be/Papers.html",
year         = "1996"
}

@inproceedings{Eynde:97,
author       = "Frank Van Eynde",
booktitle    = "Computational Linguistics in the Netherlands.
Papers from the Seventh CLIN Meeting.",
editor       = "J. Landsbergen, J. Odijk, K. van Deemter,
G. Veldhuijzen van Zanten",
homepage     = "http://www.ccl.kuleuven.ac.be/~frank/",
organization = "Technische Universiteit Eindhoven",
publisher    = "IPO, Center for Research on User-System Interaction",
title        = "On the notion Minor Category''",
url          = "http://www.ccl.kuleuven.ac.be/Papers.html",
year         = "1997"
}

@techreport{Feldhaus:97,
address      = "IBM Scientific Center Heidelberg",
author       = "Anke Feldhaus",
email        = "feldhaus@sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de ",
homepage     = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~feldhaus/",
institution  = "Institute for Logic and Linguistics",
month        = "April",
number       = "27",
title        = "{Eine HPSG-Analyse ausgew{\"a}hlter Ph{\"a}nomene
des deutschen w-Fragesatzes}",
type         = "Working Papers of the Institute for Logic and
Linguistics",
year         = "1997"
}

@incollection{Gunji:86,
author       = "Gunji, Takao",
booktitle    = "Papers from the Second International Workshop
on Japanese Syntax",
editor       = "Poser, William J. ",
pages        = "1--21",
publisher    = "CSLI",
title        = "Subcategorization and Word Order",
year         = "1986"
}

@inproceedings{Gunji:91,
author       = "Takao Gunji",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of {Japanese} Syntactic Processing
Workshop",
editor       = "R. Mazuka and N. Nagai",
publisher    = "Lawrence Erlbaum",
title        = "An Overview of {JPSG}: A Constraint-Based
Descriptive Theory for {Japanese}",
year         = "1991"
}

@incollection{Gunji:96,
author       = "Gunji, Takao",
booktitle    = "Studies in the Universality of Constraint-Based
Structure Grammars",
editor       = "Gunji, Takao",
pages        = "61--89",
publisher    = "Osaka University",
title        = "On Lexicalist Treatments of {J}apanese Causatives",
year         = "1996"
}

author       = "Harada, Yasunari and Hashida, Koichi and
Gunji, Takao and Miyoshi, Hideo and Shirai, Hidetoshi",
booktitle    = "Advances in Software Science and Technology 1",
title        = "{JPSG}---A Phrase Structure Grammar for {Japanese}",
year         = "1989"
}

@inproceedings{Kasper:Krieger:96,
author       = "Walter Kasper and Hans-Ulrich Krieger",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of the 16th International Conference
on Computational Linguistics, COLING-96",
pages        = "628--633",
title        = "Modularizing Codescriptive Grammars for Efficient
Parsing",
year         = "1996"
}

@inproceedings{Kasper:Krieger:96b,
author       = "Walter Kasper and Hans-Ulrich Krieger",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of the 20th German Annual Conference
on Artificial Intelligence, KI-96",
note         = "Springer: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin",
title        = "Integration of Prosodic and Grammatical Information
in the Analysis of Dialogs",
year         = "1996"
}

@incollection{Kasper:Krieger:ea:96,
author       = "Walter Kasper and Hans-Ulrich Krieger and
J\"org Spilker and Hans Weber",
booktitle    = "Natural Language Processing and Speech Technology.
Results of the 3rd KONVENS Conference",
editor       = "D.\ Gibbon",
pages        = "77--88",
publisher    = "Mouton de Gruyter",
title        = "From Word Hypotheses to Logical Form: An Efficient
Interleaved Approach",
year         = "1996"
}

@incollection{Kathol:To-appear,
author       = "Andreas Kathol",
editor       = "Robert Levine and Georgia Green",
homepage     = "http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~kathol/",
publisher    = "Cambridge University Press",
title        = "Agreement and the Syntax-Morphology Interface
in {HPSG}",
url          = "http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~kathol/Papers/Kathol-MorSyn.ps.gz",
url_checked  = "10.18.97",
year         = "To appear"
}

@inproceedings{Krieger:Schaefer:94c,
author       = "Hans-Ulrich Krieger and Ulrich Sch\"afer",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of the 15th International Conference
on Computational Linguistics, COLING-94",
note         = "An enlarged version of this paper is available as
DFKI Research Report RR-94-37",
pages        = "893--899",
title        = "{${\cal T\!D\!L}$}---A Type Description Language
for Constraint-Based Grammars",
year         = "1994"
}

@inproceedings{Krieger:Schaefer:95,
author       = "Hans-Ulrich Krieger and Ulrich Sch\"afer",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of the 14th International Joint
Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IJCAI-95",
note         = "Also available as DFKI Research Report RR-95-18",
pages        = "1428--1434",
title        = "Efficient Parameterizable Type Expansion for
Typed Feature Formalisms",
year         = "1995"
}

@incollection{Krieger:94,
author       = "Hans-Ulrich Krieger",
booktitle    = "Constraints, Language and Computation",
email        = "krieger@dfki.de",
editor       = "C.J.~Rupp and M.A.~Rosner and R.L.~Johnson",
homepage     = "http://www.dfki.de/~krieger/",
note         = "A version of this paper is available as DFKI
Research Report RR-93-27. Also published in:
{IDSIA} Working Paper No.~5, Lugano, November 1991",
pages        = "277--313",
title        = "Derivation Without Lexical Rules",
year         = "1994"
}

@inproceedings{Krieger:95,
author       = "Hans-Ulrich Krieger",
booktitle    = "Paper presented at the 4th Meeting on Mathematics
of Language, MOL4",
email        = "krieger@dfki.de",
homepage     = "http://www.dfki.de/~krieger/",
note         = "Also available as DFKI Research Report RR-95-20",
title        = "Typed Feature Structures, Definite Equivalences,
Greatest Model Semantics, and Nonmonotonicity",
year         = "1995"
}

@inproceedings{Krieger:95b,
author       = "Hans-Ulrich Krieger",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of the International KRUSE Symposium,
Knowledge Retrieval, Use, and Storage for Efficiency",
email        = "krieger@dfki.de",
homepage     = "http://www.dfki.de/~krieger/",
note         = "Also available as DFKI Research Report RR-95-17",
pages        = "74--85",
title        = "Classification and Representation of Types in
{${\cal T\!D\!L}$}",
year         = "1995"
}

@incollection{Krieger:95c,
author       = "Hans-Ulrich Krieger",
booktitle    = "Machine Translation and the Lexicon",
email        = "krieger@dfki.de",
homepage     = "http://www.dfki.de/~krieger/",
note         = "Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 898.
A version of this paper is available as DFKI
Research Report RR-94-39",
pages        = "101--119",
publisher    = "Springer",
title        = "Typed Feature Formalisms as a Common Basis for
Linguistic Specification",
year         = "1995"
}

@phdthesis{Krieger:95d,
author       = "Hans-Ulrich Krieger",
email        = "krieger@dfki.de",
homepage     = "http://www.dfki.de/~krieger/",
month        = "sep",
school       = "Universit\"at des Saarlandes, Department of
Computer Science",
title        = "{${\cal T\!D\!L}$}---A Type Description Language
for Constraint-Based Grammars. Foundations,
Implementation, and Applications.",
year         = "1995"
}

@techreport{Kuhn:95,
author       = "Johnas Kuhn",
email        = "jonas@ims.uni-stuttgart.de",
homepage     = "http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/~jonas/",
institution  = "Universit\"at Stuttgart",
number       = "Nr. 66",
title        = "{Die Behandlung von Funktionsverbgef\"ugen
in einem HPSG-basierten \"Ubersetzungsansatz}",
type         = "Verbmobil-Report",
url          = "http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/~jonas/papers.html",
year         = "1995"
}

@book{Miller:92,
author       = "Philip H. Miller",
email        = "pmiller@ulb.ac.be",
homepage     = "http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/pmiller/",
note         = "Published version of 1991 Doctoral dissertation,
University of Utrecht, The Netherlands",
publisher    = "Garland",
title        = "Clitics and Constituents in Phrase Structure Grammar",
url          = "http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/pmiller/#thesis",
year         = "1992"
}

@phdthesis{Mueller:97,
author       = "Stefan M{\"u}ller",
email        = "Stefan.Mueller@dfki.de",
homepage     = "http://www.dfki.de/~stefan/",
month        = "September",
school       = "University of the Saarland",
title        = "{Spezifikation und Verarbeitung deutscher Syntax
type         = "Dissertation",
url          = "http://www.dfki.de/~stefan/Pub/e_diss.html",
url_checked  = "10.18.97",
year         = "1997"
}

@techreport{Mueller:97,
author       = "Stefan M{\"u}ller",
email        = "Stefan.Mueller@dfki.de",
homepage     = "http://www.dfki.de/~stefan/",
institution  = "Deutsches Forschungszentrum f{\"u}r
K{\"u}nstliche Intelligenz",
note         = "A shorter version appeared in {\it Natural
Language Processing and Speech Technology.
Results of the 3rd KONVENS Conference,
Bielefeld, October 1996\/}",
number       = "{RR-97-08}",
title        = "Complement Extraction Lexical Rules and
Argument Attraction",
type         = "{Research Report}",
url          = "http://www.dfki.de/~stefan/Pub/e_case_celr.html",
year         = "1997"
}

@techreport{Mueller:97b,
author       = "Stefan M{\"u}ller",
email        = "Stefan.Mueller@dfki.de",
homepage     = "http://www.dfki.de/~stefan/",
institution  = "Deutsches Forschungszentrum f{\"u}r
K{\"u}nstliche Intelligenz",
note         = "A shorter version appeared in {\it Proceedings
of COLING 96\/}",
number       = "{RR-97-07}",
title        = "Yet another Paper about Partial Verb Phrase
Fronting in {German}",
type         = "{Research Report}",
url          = "http://www.dfki.de/~stefan/Pub/e_pvp.html",
year         = "1997"
}

@techreport{Mueller:97c,
author       = "Stefan M{\"u}ller",
email        = "Stefan.Mueller@dfki.de",
homepage     = "http://www.dfki.de/~stefan/",
institution  = "Deutsches Forschungszentrum f{\"u}r
K{\"u}nstliche Intelligenz",
note         = "A shorter version appeared in {\it Proceedings
of the tenth Pacific Asia Conference on
Language, Information and Computation\/}.
City University of Hong Kong. 1995.",
number       = "{RR-97-06}",
title        = "Scrambling in {German} -- Extraction into the
{{\it Mittelfeld\/}}",
type         = "{Research Report}",
url          = "http://www.dfki.de/~stefan/Pub/e_scrambling.html",
year         = "1997"
}

@incollection{Matsui:96,
author       = "Matsui, Michiano",
booktitle    = "Studies in the Universality of Constraint-Based
Structure Grammars",
editor       = "Gunji, Takao",
publisher    = "Osaka",
title        = "An Introduction to {JPSG} Phonology",
year         = "1996"
}

@inproceedings{Nagata:Kogure:90,
author       = "Nagata, Masaaki and Kogure, Kiyoshi",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of the European Conference on AI",
title        = "{HPSG}-Based Lattice Parser for Spoken Japanese
in a Spoken Language Translation System",
year         = "1990"
}

@techreport{Przepiorkowski:95,
institution  = "Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy
of Sciences",
month        = "jan",
number       = "766",
[Transmitting subcategorization]",
year         = "1995"
}

@inproceedings{Ro:94,
author       = "Ro, Atle",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of Coling '94",
pages        = "134--137",
publisher    = "Kyoto",
title        = "Interlanguage Signs and Lexical Transfer Errors",
year         = "1994"
}

@incollection{Sells:96,
author       = "Sells, Peter",
booktitle    = "Studies in the Universality of Constraint-Based
Structure Grammars",
editor       = "Gunji, Takao",
organization = "Osaka",
pages        = "39--60",
title        = "The Projection of Phrase Structure and
Argument Structure in {Japanese}",
year         = "1996"
}

@incollection{Sirai:96,
author       = "Sirai, Hidetoshi",
booktitle    = "Studies in the Universality of Constraint-Based
Structure Grammars",
editor       = "Gunji, Takao",
pages        = "171--181",
publisher    = "Osaka University",
title        = "Constraints Based Grammar Formalism for {Japanese}",
year         = "1996"
}

@inproceedings{Strom:Elsner:ea:97,
author       = "Volker Strom and Anja Elsner and Wolfgang Hess
and Walter Kasper and Alexandra Klein and
Hans-Ulrich Krieger and J\"org Spilker and
Hans Weber and G\"unther G\"orz",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of Eurospeech 97",
title        = "On the Use of Prosody in a Speech-To-Speech
Translator",
year         = "1997"
}

author       = "Tsuda, Hiroshi and Harada, Yasunari",
booktitle    = "Studies in the Universality of
Constraint-Based Structure Grammars",
editor       = "Gunji, Takao",
publisher    = "Osaka",
title        = "Semantics and Pragmatics of Adnominal Particle
NO in Quixote",
year         = "1996"
}

@incollection{Uda:96,
author       = "Uda, Chiharu",
booktitle    = "Studies in the Universality of Constraint-Based
Structure Grammars",
editor       = "Gunji, Takao",
pages        = "203--215",
publisher    = "Osaka University",
title        = "{ARG-S} Feature and Valence Features: More
Evidence From {Japanese} Passives",
year         = "1996"
}

@phdthesis{Verspoor:97,
author       = "Cornelia Maria Verspoor",
email        = "kversp@cogsci.ed.ac.uk",
homepage     = "http://www.cogsci.ed.ac.uk/~kversp/",
month        = "August",
school       = "University of Edinburgh",
title        = "Contextually-Dependent Lexical Semantics",
url          = "ftp://ftp.cogsci.ed.ac.uk/pub/kversp/thesis.ps.gz",
url_checked  = "10.21.97",
year         = "1997"
}

@article{Wintner:Francez:98,
author       = "Wintenr, Shuly and Francez, Nissim",
email        = "shuly@sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de",
homepage     = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly",
journal      = "Journal of Logic, Language and Information",
note         = "(accepted for publication)",
title        = "Off-line Parsability and the Well-foundedness
of Subsum ption",
url          = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly/publications/",
year         = "1998"
}

@inproceedings{Wintner:Francez:95,
author       = "Wintner, Shuly and Francez, Nissim",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of the Fourth International
Workshop on Par sing Technologies",
email        = "shuly@sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de",
homepage     = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly",
month        = "September",
pages        = "273-287",
title        = "Parsing with Typed Feature Structures",
url          = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly/publications/",
year         = "1995"
}

@inproceedings{Wintner:Francez:95b,
author       = "Wintner, Shuly and Francez, Nissim",
booktitle    = "Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Natural
Language Und erstanding and Logic Programming",
email        = "shuly@sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de",
homepage     = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly",
month        = "May",
pages        = "205-220",
title        = "An Abstract Machine for Typed Feature Structures",
url          = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly/publications/",
year         = "1995"
}

@inproceedings{Wintner:Francez:ea:97,
author       = "Wintner, Shuly and Francez, Nissim and
Gabrilovich, Evgeniy",
booktitle    = "Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing",
email        = "shuly@sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de",
editor       = "Mitkov, Ruslan and Nicolov, Nicolas and
Nikolov, Nikolai",
homepage     = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly",
month        = "September",
pages        = "135-142",
title        = "{AMALIA} -- A Unified Platform for Parsing and
Generation",
url          = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly/publications/",
year         = "1997"
}

@phdthesis{Wintner:97,
author       = "Wintner, Shuly",
email        = "shuly@sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de",
homepage     = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly",
month        = "January",
school       = "Technion -- Israel Institute of Technology",
title        = "An Abstract Machine for Unification Grammars",
url          = "http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~shuly/publications/",
year         = "1997"
}

@techreport{Yoshimoto:91,
author       = "Yoshimoto, Kei",
institution  = "NTT Basic Research Lab",
title        = "Japanese Grammar Description by Means of {TFS}",
year         = "1991"
}

@phdthesis{Yoshimoto:97,
author       = "Yoshimoto, Kei",
school       = "Universit{\"a}t Stuttgart",
title        = "Tense and Aspect in {Japanese} and {English}",
year         = "1997"
}