Previous issues: Issue 1 (28.Sept.96), Issue 2 (23.Dec.96), Issue 3 (23.May.97)

___ ___ __________ ___________ ___________ / /| / /| / _____ /| / ________/| / ________/| / /____/ / / / /____/ / / / / _______|/ / / _______|/ / ____ / / / _______/ / / /_______ / / / ____ / / ___/ / / / / _______/ |______ /| / / / /_ /| / / / / / / / / / ________/ / / / /______/ / / /__/ / /__/ / /__/ / /__________/ / /___________/ / |__|/ |__|/ |__|/ |__________|/ |___________|/ ___ ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ ___ | | | / | | | | | _ |___| / |__ | | |__ | | | | / | | | | |___| | | /___ |___ | | |___ Issue 4, 17.Sept.1997

Table Of Contents

  1. Editorial
  2. Calls For Papers
  3. Upcoming Events
  4. Reports On Conferences, Workshops, Etc.
  5. News
  6. Abstracts of Papers, MA and PH.D Projects
  7. Bibliographic Information


Business as usual. Send your contributions for the next issue of the gazette (to appear in about 3-4 months), as well as general comments to:

The html-version of the gazette is now also available in gzipped format from:

Enjoy this issue!

Adam Przepiórkowski
Detmar Meurers

Calls For Papers (in order of submission deadlines)

  1. Conference on Semantics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  2. Australian Natural Language Postgraduate Workshop
  3. The GLOW Colloquium (Extraordinary) 1998
  4. Michigan Linguistic Society
  5. Sinn und Bedeutung 1997
  6. Formal Way to Chinese Languages
  7. The Evolution of Language
  8. PACLIC 12, The 12th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation
  9. LANGUAGING: the Tenth Annual Conference on Linguistics and Literature
  10. Practical Linguistics of Japanese
  11. CLIN 97, Computational Linguistics in the Netherlands Eighth CLIN Meeting
  12. Forth Meeting of the Atelier des Doctorants de Linguistique
  13. 8th International Morphology Meeting
  14. The 1998 Conference of the Texas Linguistics Society
  15. The 40-th Anniversary of Generativism
  16. Research Issues for Cognitive Linguistics
  17. BLS 24, The Berkeley Linguistics Society
  18. 11th Annual CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing
  19. WCCFL XVII, West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics
  20. Third International Conference on Information-Theoretic Approaches to Logic, Language, and Computation
  21. 16th AESLA (Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics) Conference
  22. GLOW
  23. First International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation
  24. SALA XIX, Nineteenth South Asian Languages Analysis Roundtable
  25. LabPhon 6, Sixth Conference on Laboratory Phonology
  26. AFLA V, Austronesian Formal Linguistics Association
  27. SALT 8, Semantics and Linguistic Theory Eighth Annual Meeting
  28. ALS-98, Australian Linguistics Society Conference
  29. International Linguistic Association, 43rd Annual Conference
  30. The Twenty-Fifth LACUS Forum
  31. ECAI-98, 13th biennial European Conference on Artificial Intelligence
  32. 9th International Workshop on Natural Language Generation
  33. COLING-ACL'98
  34. ICGI-98, Fourth International Colloquium on Grammatical Inference

Conference on Semantics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Date: 14.-16. December 1997
Place: Jerusalem, Israel
Submission: 15. September 1997





DECEMBER 14-16, 1997


The Institute for Advanced Studies of the Hebrew University of
Jerusalem is organizing during the Fall semester of 1997/98 a research
project on semantics, on which a large group of visiting and local
scholars in the field of semantics will collaborate.

As part of the activities, we are organizing a three day conference on
semantics on December 14-16 (sun-tue), 1997.

Due to the special nature of the conference as part of the research
project, we will have rather more invited speakers than is usual. But
we will have space for about 7 contributed talks, for which this
notice is the call for papers.

We decided not to set a topic for the conference, but the list of
invited speakers to the conference (see below) should give an
indication of the kind of research that will be going on in the
project; papers of central interest to a cross-section of the
participants in the project may receive preferential treatment.

Send a 2 page abstract by mail or by fax (NOT by email) in a format
which is legible to the human eye without computer assistance to:

Fred Landman
Semantics Project
The Institute for Advanced Studies
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Givat Ram, 91904

FAX: 972-2-652 3429


NOTE: the deadline is strict. We will make the decisions known
only a few days after the deadline, so as to allow participants to
make travel arrangements.

For communications contact Fred Landman by email at:
(Note: I will be at the LSA summer institute at Cornell University
during July.)

Dorit Abusch (Stuttgart)
Maria Bittner (Rutgers)
Gennaro Chierchia (Milan)
Ariel Cohen (Ben Gurion)
Edit Doron (Hebrew U)
Jonathan Ginzburg (Hebrew U)
Jeroen Groenendijk (Amsterdam)
Irene Heim (MIT) [possibly]
Pauline Jacobson (Brown)
Fred Landman (Tel Aviv)
Tanya Reinhart (Tel Aviv)
Mats Rooth (Stuttgart)
Malka Rappaport Hovav (Bar-Ilan)
Susan Rothstein (Bar-Ilan)
Lenore Shoham (Tel Aviv)
Yoad Winter (Utrecht)

Australian Natural Language Postgraduate Workshop

Date: 19.-20. January 1998
Place: Melbourne, Australia
Submission: 15. September / 30. October 1997

Call for Papers and for Participation


In 1998, ANLPW will replace the Australian NLP Summer Workshop (ANLPSW),
which is traditionally held as part of the Australasian Computer Science
Week (Melbourne 1996, Sydney 1997) to provide a forum for Australian NLP
researchers to meet, present their work and interact with each other.

As part of the ANLP fortnight, ANLPW in 1998 is more specifically
intended as an opportunity for PhD/Masters/Honours students to present
their research and interact with each other.

The Australian NL Postgraduate Workshop will be held at the University
of Melbourne on Monday 19 and Tuesday 20 January 1998.

Papers from both Australian and international students are invited,
describing either completed research projects or research in progress
in any area of computational linguistics or NLP. We would especially
like to encourage young researchers who have not yet had the opportunity
to present their work to participate in those two days.

The standard ANLPF submission format, length and instructions apply to
papers submitted to the Postgraduate Workshop (see the ANLPF
Homepage at: "").

E-mail submissions are greatly preferred and should be sent to:

The submissions to ANLPW will be reviewed by a committee composed
of members of the ANLPF organization and reviewing committees.


Expression of interest: 15 September 1997
Email Submission of Papers: 31 October 1997
Paper Acceptances sent: 28 November 1997
Final camera ready copy due: 22 December 1997
Earlybird/author registration deadline: 1 December 1997

Dr Dominique Estival
Department of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics
University of Melbourne
Parkville Victoria 3052
tel: +61-3-9344-4227
fax: +61-3-9344-8990

The GLOW Colloquium (Extraordinary) 1998

Date: 20.-22. January 1998
Place: Hyderabad, India
Submission: 15. September 1997

The GLOW Colloquium (Extraordinary) 1998

Hyderabad, India
January 20-22, 1998

Central Institute of English & Foreign Languages,
Hyderabad, India

Call for Papers

We are happy to announce that the GLOW organization has agreed to
a GLOW colloquium in Hyderabad (India), which will be the first
meeting of GLOW to be held in Asia. This is in response to a need
expressed by some Asian linguists for a geographically more
accessible GLOW. (The Hyderabad colloquium will be in addition to
the GLOW colloquium in Tilburg in the same year.)

The aim is to bring together current theoretical discussion in
Europe and America and language data and analysis sourced from
ongoing work in universities in the Asian region.

This extraordinary GLOW colloquium

* will follow the GLOW pattern of organization for the conference
programme, and its procedure for selection of abstracts

* will, as the first GLOW meeting in Asia, aim to focus generally
on Asian generative linguistics, but will not be further
restricted with respect to theme.

Invited Speaker: Mamoru Saito, Nanzan University, Japan.

Abstract Submission

The colloquium will consist of approximately 20 talks of 45 minutes
each, followed by 15 minutes of discussion. Abstracts may not
exceed 2 pages with at least a 1 inch margin on all four sides and
should employ a font no smaller than 12 pt. They should be sent
anonymously in tenfold, accompanied by a camera-ready original with
the author's name, address and affiliation, to

GLOW Selection Committee
c/o. K A Jayaseelan
Central Institute of English & Foreign Languages
Hyderabad 500007, India
Phone: (91)(40) 701 8131 (Work)
(91)(40) 701 7512 (Home)
Fax: (91)(40) 701 8402

Submission by fax or e-mail will not be accepted.
Deadline for submission of abstracts: September 15, 1997


The GLOW Workshop

Verb Typology of African and Asian Languages

January 23, 1998

Central Institute of English & Foreign Languages
Hyderabad 500007, India


Three anonymous copies accompanied by a camera-ready original with
the author's name, address, and affiliation should be sent to

GLOW Workshop
c/o. K A Jayaseelan
Central Institute of English & Foreign Languages
Hyderabad 500007, India

Deadline for submission of abstracts: September 15, 1997

General Information


Speakers will be given accommodation and food in the guest houses
of CIEFL and neighbouring science Institutes, free of charge. Non-
speaker participants will be offered inexpensive University
accommodation and food on a first-come basis. We regret that we are
not in a position to offer even partial reimbursement for speakers'
travel, but hope that lower living expenses in Hyderabad will
partly make up for this. (Hyderabad can also provide hotel
accommodation of acceptable standard at very inexpensive rates
compared to Europe.)

The Venue

The Colloquium and the Workshop will be held in the main building
of the Central Institute of English & Foreign Languages

Hyderabad is on the tourist map of India, being an old city
(founded c. 1500 A.D). It has a distinctive Deccani muslim culture.
It is well-connected by air and rail to Bombay, Delhi and Madras,
and also to tourist resorts like Goa. The town has some good eating
places and a long tradition of excellent cuisine. The weather in
January is temperate (between 24 and 12 degrees C).


International air-fares are at their annual lowest during the
period beginning January 12th. Participants may be able to make a
further saving by booking tickets early.

The Hyderabad airport receives very few international flights; so
international travellers usually arrive at Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta
or Madras and change to a domestic airline. Make sure that you have
a confirmed ticket on the domestic sector.

"Pre-paid" taxis are available at the Hyderabad airport. (Ask for
'Arts College', a nearby landmark.)

Conference Fee

A conference fee of (Indian) Rs 750 or US$ 25 must be paid by bank
draft drawn in favour of GLOW Colloquium, CIEFL, Hyderabad. Payment
by credit cards cannot be accepted.

National Currency

The national currency is the (Indian) Rupee. The current exchange
rates are (approximately)

US$ 1 = Rs 36
Sterling = Rs 57
DM 1 = Rs 20
FF 1 = Rs 6


A tourist visa is recommended. We can send an official letter of
invitation for other types of visas (if required).

Michigan Linguistic Society

Date: 18. October 1997
Place: Michigan
Submission: 22. September 1997

Michigan Linguistic Society: Call for Papers for Oct. 18th Meeting

MLS this year will be held at Central Michigan University on October
18th. The invited speaker is Richard Rhodes from UC Berkeley, who will
be speaking on Ojibway. You are invited to submit one-page abstracts
(with name, affiliation, and email address) for 20 or 30-minute paper
seesions via either regular mail or email to the address below:

Bill Spruiell
Department of English Language and Literature
Central Michigan Unversity
Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859


Deadline for submission of abstracts is Sept. 22nd; programs will be
sent out as soon as possible after this date. "Hard Copies" of this
notice will be sent to individual departments; if you know of
colleagues who might be interested but who may not have received the
email version, please pass this along.

Thanx muchly -- Bill Spruiell
- -----------------------------------------------
Opinions expressed in this message do not necessarily represent those of
Central Michigan U.

Bill Spruiell
Central Michigan University
Dept. of English Language and Literature

Sinn und Bedeutung 1997

Date: 5.-7. December 1997
Place: Berlin
Submission: 1. October 1997

Call for papers:


2nd annual meeting of the
('Association for Semantics')

5.12. - 7.12. 1997
Humboldt University and
Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft ('Center for General Linguistics')

Angelika Kratzer (UMass, Amherst)
Frans Zwarts (Groningen)

This year, the second annual meeting of the GESELLSCHAFT FÜR
SEMANTIK ('Association for Semantics') will take place in Berlin.
The conference, SINN UND BEDEUTUNG 1997, aims at being a forum
for the discussion of semantic issues of various theoretical approaches.
We would like the conference to take place in an informal and inspiring
atmosphere which also allows for presenting work in progress.
More information about the GESELLSCHAFT FÜR SEMANTIK
is available at

Abstracts are invited for thirty-minute papers plus 15 minutes
discussion on any aspect of semantic theory.
Conference languages will be German and English.
Please, submit two copies of your abstract, which should be
3/4- to 1 page long. Submissions by email will also be accepted.


If more submissions arrive than we have space for, abstracts will be refereed.

The abstracts will be collected in a brochure which will be available
at the conference. We hope that we can avoid registration fees.
In order to get a survey of the number of participants, we would like
to ask you for early registration with the form below. Registered
participants will get information about the conference - e.g., travelling,
accommodation etc. - as soon as possible.

Important dates:
01. 10. 1997 Deadline for submission of abstracts
end of Oct. Notification of speakers
beginning of Nov. Conference programme available
05. - 07. 12. 1997 SINN UND BEDEUTUNG 1997

Organization: Ewald Lang, Claudia Maienborn, Renate Musan, Heike Wiese


Sinn und Bedeutung 1997
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Inst. für Dt. Sprache und Linguistik
Schuetzenstrasse 21
10117 Berlin

R E G I S T R A T I O N F O R M / A N M E L D E F O R M U L A R


Affiliation/ Institution____________________________________________

Address/ Adresse_______________________________________________

Code/ PLZ_____________________________________________________

Country/ Land__________________________________________________


Formal Way to Chinese Languages

Date: 12.-14. December 1997
Place: Irvine, California
Submission: 1. October 1997

University of California, Irvine

December 12-14, 1997

Call for Papers

Deadline for abstract submission: October 1, 1997

Formal Way to Chinese Languages will be held on December 12-14, 1997
at University of California, Irvine. Papers on all areas of formal
linguistics on Chinese languages are invited.

All abstract submissions must be received by October 1,
1997. Abstracts must be no more than one page, single spaced, with all
margins at least one inch wide, in 12-point type (examples may be in
10-point type), and camera-ready, on A4 or 8.5" letter size
paper. Mail five copies of the abstract, one with author's name and
affiliation, four without, along with a separate index card with paper
title, name of author(s), affiliation and status
(student/non-student), mailing and e-mail addresses, and telephone and
fax numbers. Submissions are limited to a maximum of one individual
and one joint abstract per author. We regret that we cannot accept
abstract submissions by e-mail or fax.

Presentations will be tentatively 20 minutes long, plus 10 minutes for
questions. The details are unsettled at this time, but based on the
number of submissions. Abstracts and presentations are in
English. Notice of acceptance or rejection will be sent by e-mail in
early November, 1997. Pre-registration materials and preliminary
schedule will be available in late November, 1997.

Abstracts and inquiries should be sent to:

Formal Way to Chinese Languages
c/o Irvine Linguistics Students Association (ILSA)
School of Social Sciences
University of California, Irvine
Irvine, CA 92697, U.S.A.


The Evolution of Language

Date: 6.-9. April 1998
Place: London
Submission: 1. October 1997




ORGANISED BY: Professor Jean Aitchison (Oxford University), Professor
Jim Hurford (Department of Linguistics, University of Edinburgh) and
Dr. Chris Knight (Department of Sociology, University of East London).

This will be the second conference in a series concerned with the
evolutionary emergence of speech. From a wide range of disciplines, we
seek to attract researchers willing to integrate their perspectives
with those of modern Darwinism.

- From Proto-Language to Language
- Modelling Language Evolution

SPEAKERS WILL INCLUDE: Derek Bickerton (Hawaii), Paul Bloom (Arizona),
Luigi Cavalli-Sforza (Stanford), Robin Dunbar (Liverpool), Dean Falk
(New York), Philip Lieberman (Brown), Bjorn Lindblom (Stockholm), John
Maynard-Smith (Sussex), Frederick Newmeyer (Washington), Johanna
Nichols (Berkeley), Michael Studdert-Kennedy (Haskins Labs).


Dr. Chris Knight, Department of Sociology, University of East London,
Longbridge Road, Dagenham, Essex RM8 2AS, UK,


PACLIC 12, The 12th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

Date: 18.-20. February 1998
Place: Singapore
Submission: 1. October 1997



The Chinese and Oriental Language Information Processing
Society (COLIPS -- is pleased
to announce that the 12th Pacific Asia Conference on Language,
Information and Computation (PACLIC 12) will be held in
Singapore on February 18-20, 1998.

The Conference is an annual meeting of scholars with a wide
range of interest in theoretical and computational
linguistics. The Conference solicits papers treating any field
in theoretical and computational linguistics, including
syntax, morphology, phonology, semantics, pragmatics,
discourse analysis, corpus linguistics, formal grammar theory,
natural language processing, and computer applications. We
plan to give each paper 30 minutes for presentation and

Full paper submission is required. Please mail 4 hard copies
of the paper with the title, the author's name, affiliation,
mailing address, FAX number (if any) and e-mail address on a
separate page to the address shown below. Submission by e-mail
is encouraged (but no FAX submissions). Accepted papers will
be published in the conference proceedings.


Deadline for paper submission: October 1, 1997
Notification of acceptance: November, 15, 1997
Submission of camera-ready due: January 1, 1998
Conference: February 18-20, 1998


Please email your paper submission to:

We only accept (1) Microsoft Word Rich Text Format (.rtf); (2)
Plain text (.txt); and (3) Postscript (.ps)). Otherwise,
please send three hard copies to:

Institute of Systems Science
National University of Singapore
Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Kent Ridge
Singapore 119597

For up-to-date information on the conference, please check our
web page
or write to the addresses above.


Kim Teng Lua Chairman
National University of Singapore, and
President of the Chinese and Oriental Language Information
Processing Society (COLIPS)
Benjamin K. T'sou Co-chairman
City University of Hong Kong
Chu-Ren Huang Co-chairman
Taiwan Academia Sinica
Young-Hern Lee Co-chairman
Korea Chosun University, and
President of the Korean Society for Language and
Information (KSLI)
Akira Ikeya Co-Chairman
Tokyo Gakuen University


Jin Guo National University of Singapore (Chairman)
Akira Ishikawa Sophia University
Baosheng Yuan National University of Singapore
Byung-Soo Park Kyung Hee University Korea
Changning Huang Tsinghua University
Chris Tancredi The Yokohama National University
Chungmin Lee Seoul National University
Haizhou Li National University of Singapore
Hongyin Tao National University of Singapore
Ik-Hwan Lee Yonsei University
Jerry Seligman National Chung Cheng University
Jie Xu National University of Singapore
Kathleen Ahrens National Taiwan University
Jian Su National University of Singapore
Keh-Jiann Chen Academia Sinica
Kevin Knight University of Southern California
Kiyoshi Ishikawa Hosei University
Ling Cao National University of Singapore
Maosong Sun Tsinghua University
Masato Ishizaki ATR
Martha Palmer University of Pennsylvania
Paul Horng Jyh Wu National University of Singapore
Richard Sproat AT&T Bell Labs
Shiwen Yu Beijing University
Shuichi Yatabe University of Tokyo
Taiyi Huang Institute of Automation, Academia Sinica
Von-Wun Soo National Tsing Hua University

PACLIC11 -- know more about the last conference.
COLIPS -- the organizer of PACLIC12.

LANGUAGING: the Tenth Annual Conference on Linguistics and Literature

Date: 30.-31. January 1998
Place: Denton, Texas
Submission: 7./15. October 1997


LANGUAGING: The Tenth Annual Conference on Linguistics and Literature
Sponsored by the University of North Texas Department of English and

As of 8/18/97, the University of North Texas' email server and web
server are down for maintenance, making our conference email address
( and web site ( temporarily
inaccessible. We expect both our email address and our web site to be
accessible by 9/1/97.

Please contact us before 9/1/97 at

LANGUAGING: the Tenth Annual Conference on Linguistics and Literature

University of North Texas
Department of English
P.O. Box 311307
Denton, TX 76203-1307

30-31 January 1998

University of North Texas and
Radisson Hotel and Conference Center, Denton TX

Donald C. Freeman, University of Southern California
Gilles Fauconnier, University of California, San Diego and
Mark Turner, University of Maryland. Collaborative Address.

Also, "Languaging" Luncheon with
Haj Ross
Gilles Fauconnier
Mark Turner
Donald Freeman
Margaret Freeman, Los Angeles Valley College

U. S. mail: Postmarked by 7 October 1997
E-mail: 15 October 1997
Notification: 30 November 1997

Please note: we cannot accept submissions by fax.

We especially encourage submissions dealing with
- - Cognitive Linguistics
- - Conceptual Metaphor
- - Linguistic Analysis of Literature

We also welcome submissions dealing with any aspect of language,
linguistics, or literature, including
- - Literary Analysis
- - Composition Theory
- - Critical Theory
- - Composition Pedagogy
- - Minority Literature
- - Women's Studies
- - Film Theory/Popular Culture
- - Creative Writing
- - Technical Writing

- - Linguistic Analysis
- - ESL/EFL Pedagogy
- - Theoretical Linguistics
- - 1st/2nd Language Acquisition

In addition, we welcome creative submissions of
as well as proposals for complete symposia.

Please find below our instructions for submitting
Paper Abstracts
Creative Submissions
Symposia Proposals

We encourage submissions from graduate students. We accept
submissions and proposals via e-mail or U.S. mail.

Paper Abstracts should not exceed 250 words (approximately 1 page) and
should EXCLUDE name and affiliation (except on cover page see below)

Creative Submissions should include the full text of the piece and
should EXCLUDE name and affiliation (except on cover page see below)

Cover Page for All Paper Abstracts and Creative Submissions
All submissions are reviewed anonymously by selected scholars. For
all paper abstracts and creative submissions, please send a separate
cover page with the following information:
Paper title
Postal address
E-mail address
Phone number
Audiovisual needs
Status (graduate student, faculty)

Proposals for symposia should include an overall abstract (2 pages
maximum) outlining the nature of the symposium as a whole, a short
abstract for the overall symposium (250 words maximum), and a short
abstract from each presenter.

Cover Page for Symposia Submissions
Symposia abstracts should be submitted anonymously. On a separate
cover page, please send the following information:
Symposium title
Symposium paper title
Name of organizer(s)
Name of paper presenter
Affiliation of organizer(s)
Affiliation of presenter
Postal address of organizer(s)
Postal address of presenter
Phone number of organizer(s)
Phone number of presenter
Fax number of organizer(s)
Fax number of presenter
Audiovisual needs

When you submit your work, please include your personal data on a
separate cover sheet. (Abstracts are reviewed anonymously by selected
scholars.) Submit 3 copies of abstracts, creative pieces, or symposia
proposals limit your abstract to 250 words. Include a WordPerfect 6.x
compatible or ACSII disk copy of your work identified with your name,
affiliation, and paper title when you submit by U.S. mail. A disk
copy is especially important if your abstract includes symbols that
are difficult to transcribe.

Please direct your questions to
- - email address:
U.S. mail address: LANGUAGING: the Tenth Annual Conference on
Linguistics and Literature
University of North Texas
Department of English
P.O. Box 311307
Denton, TX 76203-1307

or visit our web site:

Practical Linguistics of Japanese

Date: 3. May 1998
Place: San Francisco, California
Submission: 10. October 1997

Call for Papers

International Conference on

Practical Linguistics of Japanese

In Memory of Professor Toshiko Mishima

May 3, 1998 (Sunday)
San Francisco State University (SFSU)

Sponsored by the
Center for the Advancement of
Teaching of Japanese Language and Culture (CATJL), SFSU
The Northern California Japanese Teachers Association (NCJTA)

* * * * * Keynote Speakers * * * *

Susumu Kuno (Harvard University)
Seiichi Makino (Princeton University)

Conference Chair: Midori Y. McKeon, Director , CATJL and President, NCJTA

(1) Aims and Scope
This conference is intended to bring together researchers on the
cutting edge of Japanese linguistics research and to offer a forum in
which linguistics research results can be presented in a form
applicable to those who might apply them in practical fields such as
teaching of Japanese as a foreign language and in language technology.

We are soliciting abstracts of papers on original and unpublished
research in any area of linguistics, including but not limited to:
phonetics, phonology, the lexicon, morphology, syntax, semantics, and
discourse pragmatics. Authors are urged to write for those who may
not be necessarily familiar with highly specialized technical terms of
linguistics. We expect that conference papers will be published.

(2) Conference Language: English/Japanese

(3) All Correspondence to: Yukiko Sasaki Alam
Program Chair, Mishima Conference
Dept. of Foreign Languages and Literatures
San Francisco State University
1600 Holloway Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94132

Fax: (415) 841 1826

(4) Abstracts
Send abstracts to the Program Chair. No faxed or e-mailed abstracts
will be accepted.

****Abstract Receipt Deadline: October 10, 1997 (Postmarked)****
Notification of Acceptance: November 10, 1997

Include: (a) Three copies of a one-two page abstract of the paper with
a title (using a typeface of at least 12 points with at least 0.75
inch (3 cm) margins on all sides). An additional page may be used for
figures, data and bibliographical citations. OMIT name and
affiliation. (b) 3"X5" card with the paper title, name(s) of the
author(s), address, e-mail address, telephone number, fax number (if

(5) Registration fees:
Twenty (20) US dollars (Twenty-five (25) US dollars on site). People
who are interested in attending the conference are asked to send it
together with the following registration form to the Program Chair.

(6) Manner of the payment
The payment should be by a personal US bank check or an international
money order/bank draft payable to "NCJTA".

(7) Accommodation
Due to unfortunate circumstances, the University guest center is no
longer available to accomodate guests to the university. More
information about the conference, accommodations and transportations
will be on the World Wide Web at: ~japanese.
SFSU is located beside Lake Mercede in the southwest end of San
Francisco, six miles from downtown and two miles from the Pacific
Ocean. You can get to the campus from downtown by bus, streetcar or

(8) Registration Form
International Conference on Practical Linguistics of Japanese in
Memory of Professor Toshiko Mishima, San Francisco State University,
May 3, 1998.

Please fill out this form and return it to the Program Chair. (Please
print or type.)

Name: __________________________________________________
First (Middle) Last

Affiliation: ____________________________________________________

Address: _____________________________________________________________



Telephone: ____________________________ E-mail ________________________

Fax (if available): __________________________________

Please check:

Included with the Registration Form is/are:

0 Registration fees of twenty dollars

0 Deposit for hotel accommodation ( ________ dollars)
Please reserve a room at the University Guest Center
from the date of May _____to the date of May _____, 1998

Signature: ______________________ Date: ____________

CLIN 97, Computational Linguistics in the Netherlands Eighth CLIN Meeting

Date: 12. December 1997
Place: Nijmegen, the Netherlands
Submission: 10. October 1997

CLIN 97 Second Announcement

Computational Linguistics in the Netherlands
Eighth CLIN Meeting
Friday, 12 December, 1997
Department for Language and Speech
University of Nijmegen

We are happy to announce the eighth CLIN meeting, which will be hosted by the
Department of Language and Speech of the University of Nijmegen.

The meeting will take place in the "Aula/Congresgebouw" of the University of
Nijmegen. The default language of the conference will be English.

The guest speaker of CLIN 97 is

Professor Yorick Wilks

University of Sheffield (UK)

The topic of his talk will be announced later.

The local organisers of this year's meeting are Peter-Arno Coppen, Hans
van Halteren and Lisanne Teunissen.

Researchers are invited to present papers on all aspects of computational
linguistics (phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics,
computational lexicography, formal languages, grammar formalisms, information
retrieval, knowledge representation, corpus-oriented methods, etc.).

Authors should submit an abstract in English to the local organisers
(preferably by e-mail, in flat ASCII). The abstract should contain:

- a title
- your name, address, affiliation, and e-mail address
- a short outline of the paper (10-20 lines)

You can send your abstract to:

or, if email is not possible, to:

CLIN 97 (P.A. Coppen)
University of Nijmegen
Department for Language and Speech
P.O. Box 9103

Deadline for the submission is 10 October 1997. Notification of acceptance
(by e-mail): 17 October 1997

A volume with proceedings of the Seventh CLIN meeting (held 1 December
1996, in Eindhoven) will be available at this year's meeting. We intend
to produce a volume of the proceedings of CLIN 97 before CLIN 98. Papers
for these proceedings will have to be written in English; they will be
reviewed by a committee to be appointed in due time.

This and future information about CLIN 97 will be made available via the
CLIN home page:

Forth Meeting of the Atelier des Doctorants de Linguistique

Date: 5.-6. December 1997
Place: Paris, France
Submission: 15. October 1997


5-6 DECEMBER 1997

The Atelier des Doctorants de Linguistique (ADL) is an organisation created
and run by students. With the support from the University of Paris 7, it
aims at developing exchanges between students from different theoretical
backgrounds. In that respect, the fourth meeting is an opportunity for
young linguists to present their works and exchange ideas around :

* papers in miscellaneous areas of linguistics
* workshops on interdisciplinary topics
* friendly breaks allotting time for discussions

This meeting is organised by students and is student-oriented.

Papers, preferably delivered in French, should deal with the following
fields: computational linguistics, history of linguistics, morphology,
phonetics, phonology, pragmatics, psycholinguistics, semantics,
sociolinguistics, syntax and word-formation. A three-page abstract should
be sent by October 15th, accounting for the theoretical backgrounds,
hypotheses, examples and results which are to be presented at the meeting.

Abstracts should be submitted, by email if possible, at or sent by snail mail. In that case, send three
anonymous copies along with a separate listing of name, institutional
affiliation, preferred mailing address, phone, e-mail address and paper
title to the following address:

4emes rencontres de l'ADL
Universite Paris 7 - Denis Diderot
UFR de Linguistique - Case 7003
Tour Centrale, piece 911
2, place Jussieu
75251 Paris Cedex 05

Accepted papers will be notified by the program committee in early November.

The meeting will be free of charge. Furthermore, we will try to accommodate
speakers. For further information, join us at
or at

Program committee: Valerie Amary, Nicolas Ballier, Nathalie Gasiglia,
Pierre Jalenques, Isabelle Leglise (coordination), Helene Le Guillou de
Penanros, Tobias Scheer, Kim Stroumza.

ABSTRACT DEADLINE : October 15th ,1997




5-6 decembre 1997
Universite de Paris 7 - Denis Diderot

Structure creee et geree par des doctorants, l'Atelier des
Doctorants de Linguistique (A.D.L.) de Paris 7, avec le soutien de son
Ecole Doctorale, a pour objectif de favoriser les echanges entre etudiants
travaillant dans des domaines et dans des cadres theoriques differents.
Dans cette optique, il organise pour la quatrieme annee consecutive des
rencontres, occasion pour de jeunes linguistes de presenter leurs travaux
et de confronter leurs points de vues a travers :

* des presentations dans des domaines varies de la linguistique
* des ateliers-debats autour de themes transversaux
* des pauses conviviales laissant le temps aux discussions

La particularite de ces rencontres est leur caractere etudiant :
organisation, comite de lecture et intervenants.

Les communications se situeront dans les domaines suivants :
histoire des idees linguistiques, lexicologie, linguistique et
informatique, morphologie, phonetique, phonologie, pragmatique
linguistique, psycholinguistique, semantique, sociolinguistique et syntaxe.
Les etudiants interesses enverront un resume de 3 pages avant le 15 octobre
1997, comprenant : une explicitation de leurs presupposes theoriques, les
hypotheses, exemples et resultats exposes lors de la presentation.

Ce resume est a soumettre, si possible par email a :

ou a adresser, en 3 exemplaires anonymes accompagnes d'une fiche
personnalisee (nom, universite de rattachement, adresse personnelle et
professionnelle, telephone, email, titre de la communication) a l'adresse
suivante :

4emes rencontres de l'ADL
Universite Paris 7 - Denis Diderot
UFR de Linguistique - Case 7003
Tour Centrale, piece 911
2, place Jussieu
75251 Paris Cedex 05

L'acceptation des communications sera notifiee par le comite de lecture
debut novembre.

La participation a ces rencontres est gratuite. Nous essaierons, de plus,
de mettre en place des possibilites d'hebergement. Les personnes souhaitant
des renseignements complementaires peuvent nous contacter a la meme adresse
ou par email, ou www : http://

Organisation : Valerie Amary, Nicolas Ballier, Nathalie Gasiglia, Pierre
Jalenques, Isabelle Leglise (coordination), Helene Le Guillou de Penanros,
Tobias Scheer, Kim Stroumza.


8th International Morphology Meeting

Date: 12.-14. June 1998
Place: Budapest, Hungary
Submission: 15. October 1997

8th International Morphology Meeting, Budapest, 1998 June 12-14

Call for Papers

The 8th International Morphology Meeting will be held on 12-14 June
1998 in Budapest. Special topic:

Morphology By Itself

The conference is open to other morphology-related topics as
well. Abstracts should be sent to the organizers before October 15,

Prof. Ferenc Kiefer
Research Institute for Linguistics

Contact person: Kinga Gardai

Post address: 8th Morphology Meeting,
Research Institute for Linguistics of HAS
1250 Budpaest, P.O.Box 19.
telephone: 1758285
fax: 212 2050


Budapest, 1998 June 12-14

Please send by physical or email a maximally two page abstract to
Kinga Gardai by October 15.

Research Institute for Linguistics of HAS
Room 119,
1250 Budapest
P.O.Box 19
Fax: (36 1) 212 2050
Telephone: (36 1) 175 8285

Kinga Gardai

The 1998 Conference of the Texas Linguistics Society

Date: 13.-15. March 1998
Place: Austin, Texas
Submission: 17. October 1997

The 1998 Conference of the Texas Linguistics Society

Title: Exploring the Boundaries Between Phonetics & Phonology

The University of Texas at Austin
March 13-15, 1998

Keynote Speakers:

Abigail Cohn, Cornell University
Patricia Keating, University of California, Los Angeles
Janet Pierrehumbert, Northwestern University

Abstracts are invited for 30 minute talks (with 10 additional minutes
for discussion) on any topic related to the relationship between
phonetics and phonology. Potential topics include, but are not
limited to:

Theoretical exploration of the interplay between phonetics and

Encoding phonetic naturalness in phonological theory or

Experimental data (acoustic or perceptual) pertaining to
phonological patterns and/or sound change

Phonetic and phonological realizations of specific patterns such
as tone and intonation, coarticulation, metathesis, etc.

Matches and mismatches between phonetic and phonological patterns

*Especially encouraged* are abstracts dealing with the separation
of phonetics and phonology

Abstracts must be no more than one 8 1/"2 by 11" page, single-spaced,
and in at least 12-point font (10 point for examples), with one-inch
margins on all sides. One additional page with references and
diagrams or tableaux may be appended if necessary. All submissions
must include the following items:

10 anonymous copies of the abstract

1 3x5" card with name, affiliation, address, phone number, email

and title of paper

Deadline for receipt of abstracts is October 17, 1997. Send abstracts

TLS Abstract Committee
Calhoun 501
The University of Texas at Austin
Austin, TX 78712

Abstracts received after the deadline will not be considered. Fax
submissions will not be accepted. Instructions for email submissions
are available upon request. An individual may submit at most one
single and one co-authored paper. Accepted presenters will be
notified by mid-December, 1997. If presenters wish to have their
papers included in the conference proceedings, they must submit a
camera-ready copy by May 15, 1998. Proceedings will be published by
the Texas Linguistic Forum.

A poster session that will accompany the conference is currently being
organized. A call for poster abstracts will be issued soon.

Preregistration for the conference is $15.00 (US) for students, $30.00
for nonstudents.

For further information, contact
or check out our web page at
Tivoli Majors
University of Texas
Department of Linguistics

The 40-th Anniversary of Generativism

Date: 1.-12. December 1998
Submission: 20. October 1997

The First Announcement

On-line Conference
"The 40-th Anniversary of Generativism"

Since Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures", published in 1957, the
generative view in linguistics has become widely popular. Thus, this
year is the 40-th anniversary of the publication. In past forty years
the generative linguistics has passed several stages of development
and currently it can be considered a broad and dynamically growing
theory, having multiply links both within the linguistics and with
other sciences.
We see the goal of the conference as helding an overall discussion
on generative linguistics.
The work of the conference should be organized in 4 sections:
Section 1. History & methodology.
Section 2. Current investigations in generative linguistics in
all of it's variants (GB-theory, minimalistic program, etc.).
Section 3. Development perspectives, unsolved problems.
Section 4. Interconnections with other sciences: biolinguistics,
psyholinguistics, neurolinguistics, cognitive, computational,
mathematical linguistics.
The conference organized by the electronic journal "Web Journal
of Formal, Computational & Cognitive Linguistics"
Program committee chair is Noam Chomsky.
All the materials will be put on the Web site of the Journal. After
the conference the materials of the conference are to be published
in the Journal, on CD and printed as a book.

Paper selection and review procedures will be similar to those of
a regular conference. All text must be in ASCII. Length of the paper
is not limited. Papers must be send to <>. The
first 4 lines of the message should consist of

Your name
Your email address
The title of the paper
Number of your section

Our time-frame is:

Deadline for papers: October 20, 1997

Final program announced: November 20, 1997

Participation in the on-line conference will be carried out on the
list GENERATE.LIST that has been created for that purpose. To subscribe
to this list, send the following message to <>:



Once you have received confirmation of your subscription, you may send
messages to <>, and you will automatically receive
all new messages sent to the list. A record of all received message
will be maintained on a specific Web page at the conference site.
Participants may send their comments and questions by means of the
GENERATE.LIST. Everyone subscribed to the list will receive these
messages. If you wish to leave the list, send the following message to


At the end of the conference participants will be automatically
removed from the GENERATE.LIST.
- - --------------------------------------------------------------------
Valery Solovyev
Editor "Web Journal of Formal, Computational & Cognitive Linguistics"
Kazan State University, Dep. Computer Science, Kazan, 420008, Russia
- - --------------------------------------------------------------------

Research Issues for Cognitive Linguistics

Date: 9.-10. July 1998
Place: Queensland, Australia
Submission: 1. November 1997



9-10 July, 1998

As part of the

The University of Queensland
(6-16 July, 1998)

Cognitive Linguistics, as a theoretically motivated approach to linguistic
and behavioural science, encompasses research on a wide variety of
linguistic and cognitive phenomena (including: syntax, semantics,
discourse, ASL/Auslan (sign language), gesture, psycholinguistic and
neurolinguistic data), and also has points of research contact with
various other linguistics sub-fields -- cf., socio- (cultural) and applied
linguistics research, as well as computation research. It is the
convenor's aim that this workshop will attract as many papers as possible
from around Australasia and beyond that investigate cognitive linguistic
processes, to illustrate the diversity of research interests encompassed
by the cognitive linguistics enterprise as well as cognitive linguistics
research in this region.

The Institute ("ALI'98") will be held over 10 days during the first two
weeks of July 1998, with classes being held on Monday through Thursday and
workshops being held during the intervening weekend. A number of eminent
scholars have already shown their support for this workshop by agreeing to
give papers at this forum (as well as give courses during the Institute):

- Prof. Wallace Chafe (U.C. Santa Barbara)
- Cognitive constraints on discourse
- Assoc. Prof. Eve Sweetser (U.C. Berkeley)
- Gesture & Metaphor
- Assoc. Prof. Arie Verhagen (Utrecht Univ.)
- Cognitive Grammar

This workshop will be opened with a Plenary paper by Prof. Wallace Chafe
on Thursday evening (9th July), after classes. All other papers will be
given on Friday (10th July). At this point, a max. of 14 speakers
(including the other two invited speakers) have been scheduled for that
day. Each paper will be 15 minutes + 10 minutes for questions/discussion
and change-over.

The final selection of papers to be included in the program will be based
on the best possible mix of research efforts to reflect the diversity of
research interest within the broader area of Cognitive Linguistics.
Papers that deal with languages of the Pacific Rim are especially


Please send abstracts to the convenor
(email submission are preferred):

Dr June Luchjenbroers,
Centre for Language Teaching & Research,
University of Queensland,
ST LUCIA, Q. 4072, Australia.

For administrative and funding purposes, expressions of interest are
esspecially encouraged.

Notification of acceptance will sent in (or before) the first week of
December 1997. All persons who are interested in updates about this
workshop should contact the convenor and an email list will be compiled.
Further information about ALI'98 and associated workshops can be found at
our web-site:

BLS 24, The Berkeley Linguistics Society

Date: 14.-16. February 1998
Place: Berkeley, California
Submission: 7. November 1997

BLS 24

The Berkeley Linguistics Society is pleased to announce its Twenty-Fourth
Annual Meeting, to be held February 14-16, 1998. The conference will
consist of a General Session and a Parasession on Saturday and Sunday,
followed by a Special Session on Monday.

General Session: The main session will cover areas of general linguistic

Invited speakers:
STEPHEN PINKER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
LEN TALMY, University at Buffalo
ANNA WIERZBICKA, Australian National University

Parasession: Phonological Universals and Phonetics.

The parasession will accept papers bearing on all aspects of the
relationship between Phonological Universals and Phonetics, where
"universals" can be interpreted broadly. To what extent are phonological
universals predicted or motivated by phonetic factors including, but not
restricted to; articulatory constraints, aerodynamic properties of sound,
or storage mechanisms of phonetic information? Conversely, what do
phonological universals predict about synchronic and diachronic phonetics?
What might the difference be between phonological and phonetic universals?

Invited speakers:
PATRICE BEDDOR, University of Michigan
BJORN LINDBLOM, University of Stockholm and University of Texas,
IAN MADDIESON, University of California at Los Angeles
JOHN OHALA, University of California, Berkeley
MARIA-JOSEP SOLE, University of Barcelona</ul>

Special Session: Indo-European Subgrouping and Internal Relations.

The Special Session will feature research on Indo-European subgrouping and
internal relations from any framework, including formal, functional,
cognitive, sociolinguistic, and historical approaches. In the last twenty
years we have come to understand the internal diachrony of Hittite, which
has begun to make clear some of the desiderata Anatolian imposes on any
theory of PIE. But new archaeological evidence has also been very
prominent both for Italic and Celtic, which has generated a lot of new
work on the very early (reconstructed) histories of both branches and on
their internal linguistic relations, their relation to each other, and
their relation to their neighbors (e.g. Germanic). Additionally, there has
been an immense amount of work on the prehistory of Tocharian, which has
in turn led to some reconsideration of its position in the family tree.
All in all, most especially in the analysis of the IE verbal system, but
also in other areas, there is a fair amount of recent work which
assumes/implies highly divergent subgroupings of the IE family.

Invited speakers:
JAY JASANOFF, Cornell University
CRAIG MELCHERT, University of North Carolina
DON RINGE, University of Pennsylvania

We encourage proposals from diverse theoretical frameworks and welcome
papers from related disciplines, such as Anthropology, Cognitive Science,
Computer Science, Literature, Philosophy, and Psychology.

Papers presented at the conference will be published in the Society's
Proceedings, and authors who present papers agree to provide camera-ready
copy (not to exceed 12 pages) by May 15, 1998. Presentations will be
allotted 20 minutes with 10 minutes for questions. We ask that you make
your abstract as specific as possible, including a statement of your topic
or problem, your approach, and your conclusions.

An author may submit at most one single and one joint abstract. In case
of joint authorship, one address should be designated for communication
with BLS. Send abstracts to: BLS 24 Abstract Committees, 2337 Dwinelle
Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-2650. Abstracts for the
general session, special session, and parasession must be received by 4:00
p.m., November 7, 1997. We may be contacted by e-mail at

Registration Fees: Before February 7, 1998; $15 for students, $30 for
non-students; after February 7, 1998; $20 for students, $35 for

For more specific information about submission procedures, please visit
the BLS web site at, email
us at, or call us at 510/642-5808.

Berkeley Linguistics Society
2337 Dwinelle Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720

11th Annual CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing

Date: 19.-21. March 1998
Place: New Brunswick, New Jersey
Submission: 7. November 1997


11th Annual CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing

Hosted by Rutgers University

March 19-21, 1998

Featuring a Special Session on
The Lexical Basis of Syntactic Processing:
Formal and Computational Issues

Joan Bresnan, Stanford University
Beth Levin, Northwestern University
Mitch Marcus, University of Pennsylvania
Jerry Fodor, Rutgers University

Mark Johnson, Brown University
Amy Weinberg, University of Maryland
Maryellen MacDonald, University of Southern California

ABSTRACT DEADLINE: November 7, 1997

The 11th Annual CUNY Conference on Human Sentence Processing is
soliciting abstracts for papers and posters presenting theoretical,
experimental, and/or computational research on human sentence
processing. Abstracts will be reviewed anonymously and will be
considered for both the general conference sessions and for a special
session on The Lexical Basis of Syntactic Processing: Formal and
Computational Issues.


Lexical influences on processing are currently a major focus of
attention in research on sentence comprehension, yet much of the work
remains isolated from investigations of the lexicon in other
disciplines. The special session, The Lexical Basis of Syntactic
Processing: Formal and Computational Issues, will examine current
theories of lexical representation from a multidisciplinary
perspective, relating the issues raised to current work on sentence
comprehension. The focus of the session will be presentations by
invited speakers from linguistics, computer science, and philosophy,
with critical commentary and discussion from researchers within the
sentence processing community.

The special session will also include submitted papers and posters on
the topic of the role of the lexicon in sentence processing.
Abstracts that are considered for the special session will be
evaluated both for the quality of the research and for the fit between
the submitted abstract and the invited papers.


For consideration in the spoken paper sessions: November 7, 1997.

For consideration as a poster only: January 12, 1998


Abstracts must be no more than 400 words in length, excluding
references. At the top of the abstract, please include your name,
email address, and indicate whether your abstract is to be considered
for PAPER ONLY, POSTER ONLY, or PAPER OR POSTER. The last category
means that you would be willing to present a poster if your abstract
is not included in the spoken sessions but is accepted for one of the
poster sessions. Please leave several blank lines between this
information and your title and abstract, so that we may remove this
information for anonymous abstract review.

Abstracts submitted but not accepted for the paper sessions will
automatically be included in the submissions for poster sessions,
unless the abstract is marked PAPER ONLY.


We will accept email submissions only. Email your submissions to
Please use "Abstract" as your subject header. If you are submitting
more than one abstract, each must be separately emailed. You will
receive an email acknowledgment for each abstract you submit.

If you are unable to use email to submit your abstract, you must
contact the organizers for instructions on submitting a PC-readable
disk with the required information and abstract.


The conference will be held on March 19-21, 1998, at the Hyatt
Regency, New Brunswick, New Jersey, adjacent to the Rutgers University
campus. The conference site is easily accessible by shuttle from the
Newark and New York airports (Newark is preferable), and by train from
New York or Philadelphia. Detailed hotel reservation and travel
information will soon be available on the conference web site.

For more information, see:

E-mail questions to:

WCCFL XVII, West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics

Date: 20.-22. February 1998
Place: Vancouver, Canada
Submission: 14. November 1997

West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics

University of British Columbia
February 20-22, 1998


Abstracts are invited for 20-minute talks in all areas of linguistics
from any theoretical perspective. There will be two special sessions
in addition to the main program. Abstracts may be submitted to the
main program or either of the special sessions.

*Special Sessions: Interfaces*

Invited speakers will be presenting at the following 2 special
Lisa Selkirk, UMass: Phonology/Syntax Interface
Angelika Kratzer, UMass: Syntax/Semantics Interface

Abstract Requirements

Abstracts should be no more than one standard size page in length with
the option of including an additional page for data and references.
Abstracts should be in at least 11-point type with 1-inch margins,
single-spaced. Please mail ten anonymous copies as well as a 3" x 5"
index card with the following information:

name of author(s)
mailing address
area (phonology, syntax, semantics...)
phone number (optional)
e-mail address (optional)

Please specify on your index card if you are submitting your abstract
to either of the special sessions. Submissions are limited to 1
individual and 1 joint abstract per author. Please do not send
abstracts by e-mail.


Abstracts should be sent to:

Department of Linguistics
University of British Columbia
E270-1866 Main Mall
Vancouver, British Columbia

Information will be made available at the WCCFL web site:

Third International Conference on Information-Theoretic Approaches to Logic, Language, and Computation

Date: 16.-19. June 1998
Place: Hsi-tou, Taiwan
Submission: 15. November 1997


Third International Conference on
Information-Theoretic Approaches to Logic,
Language, and Computation

Hsi-tou, Taiwan

16-19 June, 1998

This conference aims to bring together researchers who use
information-theoretic tools to address issues in the cognitive
sciences, broadly conceived to include Computer Science, Linguistics,
Logic, Philosophy, Psychology, and Sociology. It will be the third of
a series of conferences on information-theoretic approaches, and the
sixth of a series of conferences on situation theory and its

1998 is the 50th anniversary of Shannon's pioneering work. The
intervening years have seen classical information theory become a
mature subject, and the birth of other approaches to the study of
information, such as situation theory and dynamic logic. This
conference welcomes submissions from all traditions in the study of

The conference will take place in a lodge in Hsi-tou, a bamboo forest
in the central mountains of Taiwan. The location offers both excellent
facilities and relative isolation. It is one of the most beautiful
parts of Taiwan, close to Sun-Moon lake, one of Taiwan's aboriginal
villages, and the peaks of the Central Mountain Range, which at 14,000
feet are some of the highest mountains in Asia outside the Himalayas.


David Beaver (Linguistics, Stanford)
David Chalmers (Philosophy, Santa Cruz) (Unconfirmed)
Nick Chater (Psychology, Warwick)
David Israel (AI Center, SRI and CSLI, Stanford)
Michiel van Lambalgen (Mathematics and Computer Science, Amsterdam)

(Further invited speakers are expected to be announced.)


We solicit papers on the following topics:

* Foundations and applications of various approaches
to the study of information, for example:
-Shannon-Weaver communication theory
-Barwise-Seligman Channel theory
-Situation Theory
-Dynamic Semantics
-Dretske's semantic theory of information
* Information-based approaches to the syntax, semantics and
pragmatics of natural language
* Information-based approaches to philosophy of mind, consciousness
studies, and epistemology
* Information-theoretic approaches to cognitive psychology
* Information-theoretic approaches to induction and learning
* Probabilistic methods in epistemology and logic
* Theory change, including Belief Revision and Bayesian approaches

Papers on related subjects will also be considered. Papers of
interest to an interdisciplinary audience are particularly welcome.


Authors are invited to submit a detailed abstract of a full paper of
at most 10 pages by e-mail to

(using `ITALLC98 Submission' as the subject line). The cover page
should include title, authors and contact details of the corresponding
author. Submission of postscript files is strongly encouraged.

Although we prefer email submissions, we will also accept abstracts
sent by regular mail. Please send such submissions to:
Patrick Blackburn
University of Saarland
D-66041 Saarbrücken

The DEADLINE for submissions is

November 15, 1997.


February 15, 1998.

The accepted abstracts will appear on a World Wide Web server. The
revised proceedings of previous meetings have been published as
volumes in CSLI's Lecture Notes series. We anticipate publishing a
similar volume from the proceedings of this conference.

The ITALLC98 website is

PROGRAM COMMITTEE: Patrick Blackburn (Chair), Nick Braisby,
Lawrence Cavedon, Sheila Glasbey, Atsushi Shimojima.

ORGANISING COMMITTEE: Jerry Seligman (Chair), Allen Houng, Kuo-Wei Lee,
Cheng-Houng Lin, Jim Tai, Ovid Zheng,
Patrick Blackburn (Program Liaison)

16th AESLA (Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics) Conference

Date: 22.-25. April 1998
Place: La Rioja, Spain
Submission: 30. November 1997

22-25 April, 1998

1- The University of La Rioja will host the 16th AESLA (Spanish
Association of Applied Linguistics) Conference. The Conference topic
is Applied Perspectives on Knowledge Organization and Language
Processing and Language Use. It will consist of nine Theme Sections,
which are listed below. There is an organizer for each section.

2- DEADLINES. Hard copies of communication proposals should be
submitted before 30 November, 1997. Authors are expected to provide
three copies of the full text of their contributions. The author's
name, address, phone number, FAX number, e-mail, and professional
information should appear only in one of the copies. Please omit all
this information from the other two copies. The full text, including
bibliographical references, notes, figures, and appendixes, should not
exceed 10 A4 or US letter size pages, typed double-spaced and with
reasonably wide margins. Authors should ascribe their contributions to
a Theme Section and submit them to the corresponding Section
Organizer. Submissions will be refereed. All submittors will be
notified of the committee's decision before the end of February
1998. A style sheet for publication in book format will then be
provided to all participants. Submitters should be members of
AESLA. To become a member, contact the following address:

Secretaria de AESLA
Universitat Jaume I
Department de Filologia Anglesa i Romanica
Campus de la Carretera de Borriol
Apartat de Correus 224
12080 Castella, Spain.


1. The Conference will feature at least four PLENARY LECTURES:

-Arthur Graesser. University of Memphis.
Lecture Title: The Construction of Multiple Agents during the
Comprehension of Discourse and Literary Short Stories.
Workshop Title: How to Improve Expository Text to Facilitate
Comprehension and Memory.

-Joaquin Garrido. Complutense University. Madrid.
Lecture title: El analisis del uso: Desde la pragmatica y la
sociolinguistica hacia una nueva concepcion de la gramatica. (The
analysis of usage: from pragmatics and sociolinguistics to a new
conception of grammar)

-Nanda Poulisse. University of Amsterdam.
Lecture title: Slips of the Tongue and Second Language Processing.

-Fourth invited lecturer to be determined.

2. The Conference shall host seven WORKSHOPS and several ROUND TABLES,
which will be simultaneous with other conference events.

3. COMMUNICATIONS. Presentation of communications will be restricted to
twenty minutes plus ten minutes' discussion.

4. POSTERS. Abstracts of approximately 150 words should be submitted
to the corresponding Theme Section organizer. As in the case of
communications, authors should include their personal and professional
data (author's name, address, phone number, fax number, and e-mail.).

4- THEME SECTION ORGANIZERS (plus submittal address):

Rosa Maria Manchan Ruiz
Universidad de Murcia
Departamento de Filologia Inglesa
Plaza de la Universidad
30071- Murcia
Tel: (34) (68) 363187
Fax: (34) (68) 363185/363417

Aquilino Sanchez Perez
Universidad de Murcia
Departamento de Filologia Inglesa
Plaza de la Universidad
30071- Murcia
Tel: (34) (68) 363175/191
Fax: (34) (68) 363185

Guadalupe Aguado de Cea
Universidad Politocnica de Madrid
Facultad de Informatica
Campus de Montegancedo
Boadilla del Monte
28660- Madrid
Tel: (34) (1) 715 84 11
Fax: (34) (1) 336 74 12

Mercedes Belinchon Carmona
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
Departamento de Psicologia Basica
Facultad de Psicologia
Tel: 91-3975201
Fax: 91-3975215

Francisco Moreno Fernandez
Universidad de Alcala
Departamento de Filologia
Edificio de San Jose de Caracciolos
c/Trinidad 5
28801- Alcala de Henares, Madrid.
Tel: 91-8854481 (despacho)
91-8855037 (laboratorio)
Fax: 91- 8854413

Juana Marin Arrese
Departamento de Filologias Extranjeras
Facultad de Filologia
c/Senda del Rey s/n
28040 Madrid
Tel. 3986842
Fax:: 3986830

Maria Antonia Marti Antonin
Universidad de Barcelona
Departamento de Filologia Romanica
Seccion de Linguistica General
Gran Via 585
Tel.: 93-4035671
Fax: 93-3189822

Jesus M. Sanchez Garcia
Universidad de Cordoba
Departamento de Filologia Francesa e Inglesa
Facultad de Filosofia y Letras
Plaza del Cardenal Salazar, 3
Tel: (957) 218135
Fax: (957) 218789

Pamela Faber
Universidad de Granada
Departamento de Traduccion e Interpretacion
Facultad de Traduccion e Interpretacion
c/Puentezuelas 55
Tel: (958) 246261
Fax.: (958) 244104
E-mail: pfaber@REDESTB.ES

The registration form will be provided, together with Hotel and Excursion
Reservation information, in September.

Registration before March, 23rd, 1998

Members............................ 15.000 pts.
Non-members....................... 20.000 pts.
Students.............................6.000 pts.

Registration after March, 23rd, 1998:

Members............................. 17.000 pts.
Non-members..................... 22.000 pts.
Students............................ 7.000 pts.

6- For any inquiries concerning the Conference, contact:
Javier Martin Arista (Secretary)
Departamento de Filologias Modernas
Edificio Quintiliano
c/ Cigea 60
26004, r1o (La Rioja)
Tel.: (941) 299425/299433
Fax: (941) 299419

7- Information about La Rioja
La Rioja is located in Northern Spain. This region is known for its
wine production and its natural richness (cultivated valleys and
almost untouched oak and beechwood forests in the mountains). Several
of its towns are part of the pilgrimage route to Santiago de
Compostela and the monastery of San Millin de la Cogolla is home to
the first written documents in the Spanish language. The University of
La Rioja's interest in language studies has given rise to the
organization of several International Conferences on Historical
Linguistics. For more information on the area and on the University of
La Rioja visit the following webpages: and

Lorena Perez Hernandez
Universidad de La Rioja
Departamento de Filologias Modernas
Edificio Quintiliano
c/Cigea, 60
26004, Logroo, La Rioja, Spain

tel. (41) 299430
FAX.: (41) 299419


Date: 15.-17. April 1998
Place: Tilburg, the Netherlands
Submission: 1. December 1997

GLOW (Generative Linguistics in the Old World) will hold its twentieth
annual conference on April 15-17, 1998, at the University of Tilburg in the
Netherlands. The theme of the main session is "Features". In addition there
will be workshops on April 18 in syntax (Agreement Systems) and phonology
(Opacity). Abstracts are solicited (in hard copy only!) from both the Old
and New Worlds; the deadline for submitting abstracts is

December 1, 1997.

More details about the conference, the conference themes, and submission of
abstracts can be found on our web-site,

by E-mail: GLOW@KUB.NL, or by writing to

c/o Conchita Zerrouk-Barb'e
Department of Linguistics
P.O. Box 90153
NL-5000-LE Tilburg, The Netherlands

First International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation

Date: 28.-30. May 1998
Place: Granada, Spain
Submission: 1. December 1997



GRANADA, SPAIN, 28-30 MAY 1998

The First International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation has
been initiated by ELRA and is organized in cooperation with other
associations and consortia, including EAFT, EAGLES, EDR, ELSNET, ESCA,
FRANCIL, LDC, PAROLE, TELRI, etc., and with the sponsorship of major
national and international organizations, including ARPA, the European
Commission - DG XIII and the NSF. Cooperation and co-sponsorship with other
institutions is currently being sought.


In the framework of the Information Society, the pervasive character of
language technologies and their relevance to practically all the fields of
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has been widely recognized.

Two issues are currently considered particularly relevant for promoting
international cooperation: the availability of language resources and the
methods for the evaluation of resources, technologies and products.

The term language resources (LR) refers to sets of language data and
descriptions in machine readable form, used specifically for building,
improving or evaluating natural language and speech algorithms or systems,
and in general, as core resources for the software localization and language
services industries, for language studies, electronic publishing,
international transactions, subject-area specialists and end users.
Examples of linguistic resources are written and spoken corpora,
computational lexicons, grammars, terminology databases, basic software
tools for the acquisition, preparation, collection, management,
customization and use of these and other resources.

The relevance of evaluation in Language Engineering is increasingly
recognized. This involves assessment of the state-of-the-art for a given
technology, measuring the progress achieved within a program, comparing
different approaches to a given problem and choosing the best solution,
knowing its advantages and drawbacks, assessment of the availability of
technologies for a given application, and finally product benchmarking. It
accompanies research and development in Human Language Technologies, and has
driven important advances in the recent past in various aspects of both
written and spoken language processing. Although the evaluation paradigm
has been studied and used in large national and international programs,
including the US ARPA HLT program, EU Language Engineering projects, the
Francophone Aupelf-Uref program and others, particularly in the localization
industry (LISA and LRC), it is still subject to substantial unresolved basic
research problems.

The aim of this Conference is to provide an overview of the
state-of-the-art, discuss problems and opportunities, exchange information
on ongoing and planned activities, present language resources and their
applications, discuss evaluation methodologies and demonstrate evaluation
tools, explore possibilities and promote initiatives for international
cooperation in the areas mentioned above.


The following non-exhaustive list gives some examples of topics which could
be addressed by papers submitted to the Conference:

- Issues in the design, construction and use of LR (theoretical & best
- Guidelines, standards, specifications, models for LR.
- Organizational issues in the construction, distribution and use of LR.
- Methods, tools, procedures for the acquisition, creation, management,
access, distribution, use of LR
- Legal aspects and problems in the construction, access and use of LR
- Availability and use of generic vs. task/domain-specific LR
- Methods for the extraction and acquisition of knowledge (e.g., terms,
lexical information, language modeling) from LR
- Monolingual vs. multilingual LR
- National and international activities and projects
- LR and the needs/opportunities of the emerging multimedia cultural industry.
- Industrial production of LR
- Integration of various modalities in LR (speech, vision, language)
- Exploitation of LRs in different types of applications (language
technology, information retrieval, vocal interfaces, electronic commerce, etc.)
- Industrial LR requirements and the community's response
- Analysis of user needs for LR
- Evaluation, validation, quality assurance of LR
- Benchmarking of systems and products; resources for benchmarking and
- Priorities, perspectives, strategies in the field of LR - national and
international policies
- Needs, possibilities, forms, initiatives of/for international cooperation
- Evaluation in written language processing (text retrieval, terminology
extraction, message understanding, text alignment, machine translation,
morphosyntactic tagging, parsing, text understanding, summarization,
localization, etc)
- Evaluation in spoken language processing (speech recognition and
understanding, voice dictation, oral dialog, speech synthesis, speech
coding, speaker and language recognition, etc)
- Evaluation of document processing (document recognition, on-line and
off-line machine and handwritten character recognition, etc)
- Evaluation of (multimedia) document retrieval and search systems
- Qualitative and perceptive evaluation
- Evaluation of products and applications
- Blackbox, glassbox and diagnostic evaluation of systems
- Situated evaluation of applications
- Evaluation methodologies, protocols and measures
- Mechanisms of LR distribution and marketing
- Economics of LRs


1. Submission of summaries for proposed papers: (approximately 800 words):
1 December 1997

E-mail submission in ASCII form is encouraged. Otherwise, five hard copies
should be submitted.

- E-mail submissions should be sent to

- Postal submissions should be sent to

Antonio Zampolli - LREC
Istituto di Linguistica Computazionale del CNR
via della Faggiola, 32
56100, Pisa, ITALY

2. Notification of acceptance: 15 February 1998

3. Final version of the paper: 20 April 1998

The papers accepted will be included in the Conference Proceedings.


The program will include both papers and poster sessions. In addition, the
Program will also include invited speakers, and a number of panels on the
major themes of the Conference.

In particular, it is planned to organize a panel on various aspects and
perspectives of international cooperation, with the participation of
representatives of the major European, North American and Asian sponsoring


Half-day pre- and post-conference Workshops can be organized, at the request
of a presenter, to permit the discussion and debate of topics of current

The format of each Workshop will be determined by the Workshop organizer,
who will set any necessary deadlines for the participants. The next
announcement, to be circulated in September, will provide guidelines on how
to submit a proposal for a Workshop to the Program Committee.


Various platforms will be available for language resources and tools
presentations and unreferenced systems demonstrations. Organizations
interested in presenting systems should contact the local demonstration
organizers, whose address will be provided in the next announcement.


The full composition of the Scientific Committee will be listed in the next

The Conference Chair is Antonio Zampolli (Istituto di Linguistica
Computazionale del CNR and President of ELRA, via della Faggiola, 32, Pisa
56100, Italy).

The Secretariat of the Conference is provided by Khalid Choukri (ELRA, 87,
Avenue d'Italie, F-75013, Paris, FRANCE).

The conference organizing committee consists of: Harald Hoege (Siemens,
Munich, Germany). Bente Maegaard (CST, Copenhagen, Denmark), Joseph Mariani
(LIMSI-CNRS, Orsay, France), Angel Martin-Municio (President of the Real
Academia de Ciencias, Madrid, Spain), Antonio Zampolli (Istituto di
Linguistica Computazionale, Pisa, Italy).


SALA XIX, Nineteenth South Asian Languages Analysis Roundtable

Date: 18.-20. July 1998
Place: York, UK
Submission: 1. December 1997

The Department of Language & Linguistic Science
at the University of York, York, UK
is pleased to announce that it will host the


18-20 July 1998
The theme of the conference will be


Proposals for 25 minute papers are invited on any aspect of Research in
South Asian Languages (including English) covering the following areas:

Bilingualism & The Mixed Code Syntax
Semantics & Pragmatics ( including Indian Theories of Meaning)
Phonestics &Phonology Socio-Historical Linguistics
Language Variation & Change Sociolinguistics of Society
First & Second Language Acquisition Applied Linguistics.

ABSTRACTS will be considered for early acceptance starting October 1997.
Final deadline for submission of abstracts and the Pre-Registration Form
is 1st December 1997, and for submission of paper is 15 March 1998.
Abstracts (200 words) together with the Pre-registration Form should be
sent to the Local Organizing Committee:

Mahendra K. Verma
Kalika Bali
Dept. of Language & Linguistic Science
University of York

Your proposal should consist of the following : (1) the title of the
abstract, along with up to 5 keywords; (2) the panel heading of the
proposal; (3) Two copies of the abstract with (ON ONE COPY ONLY) the
author's name, postal address, telephone & fax numbers, and e-mail
address where available, and your status - research student, academic
staff, researcher.
Please send any request for information to the above address or to the
following e-mail addresses: OR OR
Fax: 01904 432673.

The National Organizing Committee welcomes you to SALA's first visit to
Mahendra K. Verma ( University of York)
Kalika Bali ( University of York)
Mukul Saxena ( University College of Ripon & St. John, York)
Dierdre Martin (University of Birmingham)
Gillian Ramchand ( University of Oxford)
Jane Stuart-Smith (University of Glasgow)

More information will soon be available on

Department of Language & Linguistic Science
University of York, York, UK


18-20 July 1998



Please complete the following as you would like it to appear on the
participants' list :

Your title: ................
Your family
Your other
Your address


Phone & fax numbers
e-mail address
Please reserve a conference place for me.


LabPhon 6, Sixth Conference on Laboratory Phonology

Date: 2.-4. July 1998
Place: York, UK
Submission: 1. December 1997

*LabPhon 6* First Notice
Sixth Conference on Laboratory Phonology
July 2 - 4 1998
University of York, UK

Constraints on phonetic interpretation
Phonetic interpretation and its relation to linguistic systems

Invited speakers to date:
Mary Beckman Ohio State
Terrance Neary University of Alberta
John Harris University College London

Important dates -
Dealine for receipt of abstracts: December 1, 1997
Notification of acceptance: February 16, 1998
Submission of draft papers: May 4, 1998

Further information available soon

AFLA V, Austronesian Formal Linguistics Association

Date: 27.-29. March 1998
Place: Honolulu, Hawaii
Submission: 1. December 1997


The fifth annual meeting of the Austronesian Formal Linguistics Association
(AFLA V) will take place on March 27-29, 1998, at the University of Hawai'i
in Honolulu. Invited speakers include Sandra Chung, UC-Santa Cruz, Diane
Massam, U of Toronto, and Stanley Starosta, U of Hawai'i. Abstracts are now
being accepted.

Deadline to submit abstracts: December 1, 1997

Please see the conference website,

for the latest information, instructions for submitting abstracts, and so
forth. The conference organizers may be reached by e-mail at

or by surface mail at

Department of Linguistics, UH-Manoa
1890 East-West Rd, Moore Hall 569
Honolulu, HI 96822

To receive current announcements by e-mail, send a message to

with the text

subscribe aflanews-l Your Name

SALT 8, Semantics and Linguistic Theory Eighth Annual Meeting

Date: 8.-10. May 1998
Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts
Submission: 2. December 1997

SALT 8 - First Call for Papers

Semantics and Linguistic Theory
Eighth Annual Meeting
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
May 8-10, 1998

SALT 8 welcomes submissions for 30-minute presentations (with 10
additional minutes for discussion) on any topic in the semantic
analysis of natural language emphasizing the connection to linguistic
theory. Authors should submit 10 copies of abstracts, no more than 2
pages (1000 words) long. Authors' names, address, affiliation, status
(faculty/student), phone number and e-mail address, paper title, and
list of prior or planned presentations at other conferences should
accompany the abstracts on a 3x5 card. Fax or E-mail submissions will
not be accepted.

- -------------

SALT does not accept papers that by the time of the conference have
appeared or have been accepted for publication in a peer-reviewed

Preference will be given to presentations not duplicated at other
major conferences (including LSA, NELS, WCCFL, etc.). Authors are
asked to indicate prior or planned presentations of their papers on
the abstract submission card.

Any person can submit at most one abstract as sole author and a second
abstract as co-author or two abstracts as co-author.

Choose a title that clearly indicates the topic of the paper. State
the problem or research question raised by prior work, with specific
references to relevant prior work. State the main point or argument of
the proposed presentation. Give at least one critical example, with
explanation of why and how it supports the main point or
argument. When examples are in languages other than English, provide
word by word glosses. State the relevance of your ideas to past work
or to the future development of the field. Describe analyses in as
much detail as possible. Avoid merely saying "a solution to this
problem will be presented". [adapted from the LSA guidelines for
abstract submissions]

Deadline for submission of abstracts is Tuesday December 2, 1997. The
program will be announced in February 1998.

Send abstracts to:

SALT 8 Organizing Committee
Department of Linguistics & Philosophy
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
E39-245, 77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139

Further announcements will be made as the conference approaches.

In conjunction with SALT, there will be a one day workshop on French
syntax & semantics. Details will be announced soon.

Inquiries are welcome to the address above, or e-mail to

The Conference Web Site is accessible at

The web sites for two previous SALT meetings are still accessible:
SALT 7 at Stanford (
and SALT 6 at Rutgers (

Proceedings of SALT are in general available from For the Proceedings of SALT 2, write to

Semantics & Linguistic Theory (SALT 8)
Organizing Committee: Kai von Fintel, Irene Heim, Sabine Iatridou

Department of Linguistics & Philosophy E39-245
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139
77 Massachusetts Avenue U.S.A.
- ---------------------------------------------------------------
World Wide Web:

ALS-98, Australian Linguistics Society Conference

Date: 3.-5. July 1998
Place: Brisbane, Australia
Submission: 30. December 1997


Australian Linguistics Society Conference
The University of Queensland
Brisbane, Australia, July 3-5, 1998

To be held in conjunction with the Australian Linguistics
Institute(ALI-98) July 6-16, 1998 Brisbane, Australia.

The Conference Organizers invite submissions on any area
of contemporary Linguistic research. Proposals for oral
presentations (30 minutes, including 5 minutes for questions)
and poster sessions are welcomed. Abstracts should be 300-500
words (single page) and will be competitively reviewed.

ALS-98 will directly precede ALI-98, a symposium of research
and course work by leading scholars, including:
*Cynthia Allen,
*Adriana Belletti,
*Mary Beckman,
*Anthony Blackhouse,
*Joan Bresnan,
*Wallace Chafe,
*Anna Uhl Chamot,
*Jenny Cheshire,
*Stephen Crain,
*Terry Crowley,
*Domimique Estival,
*Robert Dale,
*Tony Diller,
*Michael Harrington,
*Janet Holmes,
*Maya Honda,
*Rodney Huddleston,
*Richard Hudson,
*Harold Koch,
*Wilaiwan Khanittanan,
*Diane Larson-Freeman,
*Claire Lefebvre,
*Beth Levin,
*K.P. Mohanan,
*Tara Mohanan,
*Wayne O'Niel,
*Anne Pauwels,
*Luigi Rizzi,
*Eva Sweetser,
*Arie Verhagen,
*Michael Walsh.

Email submission of abstracts is preferred to:

Otherwise, mail abstracts to:

The Organizers, ALS-98
Department of English
University of Queensland
Brisbane, 4072, AUSTRALIA
FAX: +61 7 3365 2799

For further information and updates, the ALS 98 Web site will be available
shortly at:

Important dates:

Deadline for receipt of abstracts: December 30, 1997

Notification of acceptance and preliminary program: March, 1998.

International Linguistic Association, 43rd Annual Conference

Date: 17.-19. April 1998
Place: New York, New York
Submission: 3. January 1998

April 17-19, 1998, New York University


The major theme of the conference will be 'Bilingualism' Abstracts related
to that theme will be given priority, but papers from any area of
theoretical or applied linguistics will be considered.

One page, single-spaced, anonymous abstracts should clearly state the
problem addressed or the research questions previously raised by others,
and some indication of the results or conclusions should be given.
Preferably, abstracts should be sent via e-mail. Simultaneously, 3 hard,
camera-ready copies, together with a 3x5 card bearing name, title of paper,
addresses, affiliation, audio-visual equipment needed and time desired
(maximum, 20 minutes plus discussion). For those unable to submit via
e-mail, 8 hard copies
(together with the 3x5 card) should be sent snail mail. Proposals for
panels, special sessions, etc., including the names of the proposed
participants, are also welcome. Direct all to the conference chair:
Prof. John Costello, Dept. of Linguistics, New York University, 719
Broadway, Room 504, New York, NY 10003; e-mail;
telephone 212-9098-7948 Abstracts must be received by January3, 1998.

The Twenty-Fifth LACUS Forum

Date: 28. July - 1. August 1998
Place: Claremont, California
Submission: 15. January 1998

JULY 28-AUGUST 1, 1998


The 25th LACUS Forum--with 4 days of refereed papers and panels, will be
held at the Claremont Graduate University (Professor John Regan, local

Featured lecturers:
Ronald Langacker (Linguistics), UCSD
Elizabeth Bates (Psychology), UCSD

Abstracts are invited on one or more of the following topics (but abstracts
on other related topics will also be considered):
Conceptual Categories Cognitive Linguistics
Grammatical Categories Functional Linguistics
Syntax & Pragmatics Syntax & Semantics
Foundations of Linguistics Discourse Analysis
Speech vs. Non-Spoken Expression Neurolinguistics
Diachronic/Synchronic Phonology Language & Thought

Abstracts should be anonymous (no indication of the author) and should:
l. Have an informative, but brief title
2. Clearly state the problem to be addressed or the research
questions raised by prior studies.
3. State the main point(s) or argument(s) of the proposed
presentation, with, relevant data if possible. If the paper is
empirically based, state specific hypotheses and at least an
outline of results obtained.
4. Show relevance to other work or to linguistic research.
5. Give references to literature cited in the abstract.

Submit abstracts via e-mail with 3 camera-ready copies simultaneously sent
via snail mail to the addresses below . Those without e-mail available
should send 16 hard copies via snail mail. Each author should also send
snail mail a 3x5" card bearing name, addresses (especially e-mail)
affiliation, phone, title of paper, audio-visual equipment required (an
overhead projector will regularly be available), eligibility for prizes,
time desired (normally 15 or 25 minutes plus discussion time), and
identification of one or more topics under which the paper falls (from
above list, or specify if another). Proposals for panels, discussion
sessions, etc.--identifying proposed participants for --are also welcome.

The annual Presidents' Predoctoral Prize ($100.00) and Postdoctoral Prize
($500.00--for young untenured scholars) will be awarded to the best papers
in each category (only single-authored presentations considered).

Limited funds to assist scholars coming from countries with weak currencies
may be available. For information contact the Conference Committee Chair.

Submit abstracts & proposals to: Ruth Brend, Chair, LACUS Conference
Committee, 3363 Burbank Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA (tel. 313-6652787;
fax 313-6659743; e-mail,

Deadline January 15, 1998.

ECAI-98, 13th biennial European Conference on Artificial Intelligence

Date: 23.-28. August 1998
Place: Brighton, UK
Submission: 23. January 1998
                 ______    _____            ___
                |      |  /     \    /\    |   |
                |   ---| |    ___|  /__\   |___|   __  ,-
                |   ---| |       | /    \  |   |  /  ||  |
                |______|  \_____/ /______\ |___|  `-/  \'
                                                   /  / \
                 AUGUST 23-28 1998  BRIGHTON UK   (   `-'


The ECAI-98 Programme Committee invites submission of papers for the
Technical Programme of the 13th biennial European Conference on Artificial
Intelligence (ECAI-98).

23 Jan 1998 Deadline for papers
15 Apr 1998 Notification of acceptance
15 May1998 Camera-ready copies of papers
26-28 Aug 1998 Technical programme at ECAI-98

Submissions are invited on substantial, original and previously unpublished
research in all aspects of AI, including, but not limited to:

Abduction, Temporal, Causal Reasoning, and Diagnosis; Automated
Reasoning; Application and Enabling Technologies; Belief Revision and
Nonmonotonic Reasoning; Case-Based Reasoning; Cognitive Modelling and
Philosophical Foundations; Computational Linguistics; Constraint-Based
Reasoning and Constraint Programming; Distributed AI and Multiagent
Systems; Fuzzy Logic; Knowledge Acquisition; Knowledge Representation;
Logic Programming, and Theorem Proving; Machine Learning, Knowledge
Discovery and Data Mining; Natural Language and Intelligent User
Interfaces; Neural Networks in AI; Planning, Scheduling, and Reasoning
about Actions; Probabilistic Networks; Qualitative Preferences and
Decision in AI; Qualitative and Spatial Reasoning; Reasoning under
Uncertainty; Robotics, Vision, and Signal Understanding; Search and
Meta-Heuristics for AI; Verification, Validation and Testing of
Knowledge-Based Systems.

Submission procedure

Detailed formatting guidance will be published on the ECAI-98 website in due
course. Accepted papers will have 5 A4 pages in 2-column format in the
proceedings. 6 copies (hard copy only) of papers should be submitted by post
to the ECAI-98 Programme Chair, Henri Prade at the following address:

Henri Prade, ECAI-98 Programme Chair
Universiti Paul Sabatier
118 route de Narbonne
31062 TOULOUSE Cedex 4

Tel: +33(0)561 55 65 79
Fax: +33(0)561 55 62 39

The deadline for receipt of proposals is 23 January 1998 . For other
important dates, see the table above.

Other information

All submissions will be subject to academic peer review by the ECAI-98
Programme Committee under the chairmanship of the ECAI-98 Programme Chair.
The ECAI-98 Programme Chair has final authority over the review process and
all decisions relating to acceptance of papers.

The conference proceedings will be published and distributed by John Wiley
and Sons Ltd. Note that at least one author of each accepted paper is
required to attend the conference to present the paper.

ECAI-98 Secretariat Tel: +44(0)1273 678448
Centre for Advanced Software Applications Fax: +44(0)1273 671320
University of Sussex Email:
Brighton, BN1 9QH, UK URL:

ECAI-98 is organised by the European Coordinating Committee for Artificial
Intelligence (ECCAI) and hosted by the Universities of Brighton and Sussex
on behalf of AISB.

9th International Workshop on Natural Language Generation

Date: 5.-7. August 1998
Place: Ames, Iowa
Submission: 28. January 1998

9th International Workshop on

5-7 August 1998

Prince of Wales Hotel
Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada


(For more information, visit )

The 9th biennial Workshop on Natural Language Generation will be held
in the scenic town of Niagara-on-the-Lake, near Niagara Falls, in
Ontario, Canada, on 5-7 August 1998.

The INLG workshop is the principal gathering for researchers in natural
language generation, providing a pleasant atmosphere for stimulating
and informative talks on all aspects of the topic. The workshop
attracts a healthy mixture of researchers from both universities and
research institutes, graduate students, and visitors from related
fields such as machine translation, multimedia presentation planning,
and parsing. About 65 people are expected to attend the workshop,
which traditionally has had a very diverse international

The town of Niagara-on-the-Lake is in the heart of one of Canada's
major fruit-growing and wine regions, and is 30 minutes' drive from
Niagara Falls. It is one of the oldest settlements in Canada, with
many fine examples of Victorian architecture. Niagara-on-the-Lake
bills itself as the prettiest town in Canada, and many would agree: its
main streets are quaint and picturesque, with many interesting shops,
cafes, and restaurants. It is also the home of the Shaw Festival, one
of the top North American repertory theatre companies.

The workshop is sponsored by the Association for Computational
Linguistics and ACL SIGGEN (Special Interest Group on Natural Language

The workshop is in the week immediately prior to the joint conference
of COLING and ACL, in Montreal, Canada (10-14 August 1998). After the
workshop, a bus will take participants who wish to attend COLING / ACL
directly to the Toronto train station, for an express train to Montreal
(approximately 4 hours).


Of interest are papers on all topics relating to the automated
production of natural language, including but not limited to: discourse
structure; grammar; lexis and lexical choice; text planning and schemas
(macroplanning); sentence planning (microplanning); semantics and
knowledge representation; register, genre, and pragmatics; generator
architecture; realization; generator applications; system descriptions;
generator evaluation; planning of text formatting; generation in
multimedia planning and presentation systems; speech synthesis.

Also welcomed are demonstrations of generation systems, or modules of
systems, running either via the Web or on a Sun computer to be provided
at the workshop.


Papers should describe unique work not published before. They should
emphasize the creative and interesting aspects of the work, but should
also describe empirical validation and testing as much as possible.

Papers that are being submitted to other conferences must state this
fact on the first page.


Theoretical papers must not exceed 10 pages, including title,
references, figures, etc. Please use no smaller than 11pt font, with
margins of 1 inch / 2.5 cm all around. Papers not satisfying the
specified length and formatting requirements will be rejected without

System demonstrations will be reviewed as well. Please send an
outline, clearly marked as a system demonstration in the heading, that
describes the demonstration, including if possible screen shots.
Outlines may not exceed 4 pages, all included, using font no smaller
than 11pt and margins of 1 in / 2.5 cm all around. Outlines not
satisfying the specified length and formatting requirements will be
rejected without review.


Electronic submissions should be in the form of a PostScript file.
This file should be sent to, with the subject field "INLG


Hardcopy submission is possible too. Five copies of the paper or
demonstration outline should be sent to:

Eduard Hovy, INLG-98
Information Sciences Institute
4676 Admiralty Way
Marina del Rey, CA 90292-6695


Electronic submissions must be received by 28 January 1998, so that
they can be printed and checked for completeness. Electronic
submissions will be accepted only if they can be printed at ISI.

Hardcopy submissions must be received by 1 February 1998. Late papers
will be returned unreviewed.

Notification of receipt will be e-mailed to the first author (or
designated author) soon after receipt. Authors will be notified of
acceptance before 10 March 1998. Camera-ready copies of final papers
prepared in a format to be specified, preferably using a laser printer,
must be received by 15 June 1998, along with a signed copyright release


The workshop is being organized by Chrysanne DiMarco of the University
of Waterloo, with the assistance of Graeme Hirst of the University of
Toronto. The Program Chair is Eduard Hovy of USC/ISI.

General workshop questions:
Chrysanne DiMarco,, phone +1 519 888 4443

General paper-submission questions:
Eduard Hovy,, phone +1 310 822 1510 x731


Eduard Hovy, USC/ISI, Marina del Rey (chair)
Stephan Busemann, DFKI, Saarbrücken
Susan Haller, University of Wisconsin-Parkside
Helmut Horacek, University of the Saarland
Xiaorong Huang, Formal Systems, Toronto
Kristiina Jokinen, ATR, Kyoto
Guy Lapalme, University of Montreal
Elisabeth Maier, DFKI, Saarbrücken
Chris Mellish, University of Edinburgh
Marie Meteer, BBN
Jon Oberlander, University of Edinburgh
Cecile Paris, CSIRO, Sydney
Owen Rambow, CoGenTex Inc., Ithaca
Ehud Reiter, University of Aberdeen
Elke Teich, Macquarie University, Sydney
Marilyn Walker, AT&T Labs Research, Florham Park

For more information, visit the INLG-98 Website:


Date: 10.-14. August 1998
Place: Montreal, Canada
Submission: 30. January 1998



17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING'98)
36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL'98)

Universite de Montreal
Montreal (Quebec), Canada
August 10-14, 1998

Deadline for submissions: January 30, 1998

For details, see:

or send an e-mail request to:

or send a hardcopy request to:
Dr. Pierre Isabelle
RALI, DIRO, Universite de Montreal
CP 6128, Succ. Centre-ville
Montreal (Quebec), Canada H3C 3J7

ICGI-98, Fourth International Colloquium on Grammatical Inference

Date: 12.-14. July 1998
Place: Ames, Iowa
Submission: 1. March 1998

Preliminary Call for Papers

Fourth International Colloquium on Grammatical Inference (ICGI-98)

Program Co-Chairs: Vasant Honavar and Giora Slutzki Iowa State University

July 12-14, 1998
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa, USA.
In cooperation with
IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society
ACL Special Interest Group on Natural Language Learning
(and possibly other organizations)


* Introduction
* Conference Format
* Topics of Interest
* Program Committee
* Local Arrangements Committee
* Submission of Papers
* Submission of Tutorial Proposals



Grammatical Inference, variously refered to as automata induction, grammar
induction, and automatic language acquisition, refers to the process of
learning of grammars and languages from data. Machine learning of grammars
finds a variety of applications in syntactic pattern recognition, adaptive
intelligent agents, diagnosis, computational biology, systems modelling,
prediction, natural language acquisition, data mining and knowledge

Traditionally, grammatical inference has been studied by researchers in
several research communities including: Information Theory, Formal
Languages, Automata Theory, Language Acquisition, Computational Linguistics,
Machine Learning, Pattern Recognition, Computational Learning Theory, Neural
Networks, etc.

Perhaps one of the first attempts to bring together researchers working on
grammatical inference for an interdisciplinary exchange of research results
took place under the aegis of the First Colloquium on Grammatical Inference
held at the University of Essex in United Kingdom in April 1993. This was
followed by the (second) International Colloquium on Grammatical Inference,
held at Alicante in Spain, the proceedings of which were published by
Springer-Verlag as volume 862 of the Lectures Notes in Artificial
Intelligence, and the Third International Colloquium on Grammatical
Inference, held at Montpellier in France, the proceedings of which were
published by Springer-Verlag as volume 1147 of the Lecture Notes in
Artificial Intelligence. Following the success of these events and the
Workshop on Automata Induction, Grammatical Inference, and Language
Acquisition, held in conjunction with the International Conference on
Machine Learning at Nashville in United States in July 1997, the Fourth
International Colloquium on Grammatical Inference will be held from July 12
through July 14, 1998, at Iowa State University in United States.


Topics of Interest

The conference seeks to provide a forum for presentation and discussion of
original research papers on all aspects of grammatical inference including,
but not limited to:

* Different models of grammar induction: e.g., learning from examples,
learning using examples and queries, incremental versus non-incremental
learning, distribution-free models of learning, learning under various
distributional assumptions (e.g., simple distributions), impossibility
results, complexity results, characterizations of representational and
search biases of grammar induction algorithms.
* Algorithms for induction of different classes of languages and
automata: e.g., regular, context-free, and context-sensitive languages,
interesting subsets of the above under additional syntactic
constraints, tree and graph grammars, picture grammars,
multi-dimensional grammars, attributed grammars, parameterized models,
* Theoretical and experimental analysis of different approaches to
grammar induction including artificial neural networks, statistical
methods, symbolic methods, information-theoretic approaches, minimum
description length, and complexity-theoretic approaches, heuristic
methods, etc.
* Broader perspectives on grammar induction -- e.g., acquisition of
grammar in conjunction with language semantics, semantic constraints on
grammars, language acquisition by situated agents and robots,
acquisition of language constructs that describe objects and events in
space and time, developmental and evolutionary constraints on language
acquisition, etc.
* Demonstrated or potential applications of grammar induction in natural
language acquisition, computational biology, structural pattern
recognition, information retrieval, text processing, adaptive
intelligent agents, systems modelling and control, and other domains.


Program Committee (Tentative)

The following people have agreed to serve on the program committee. Several
other individuals are yet to confirm their participation.

R. Berwick, MIT, USA
M. Brent, Johns Hopkins University, USA
C. Cardie, Cornell University, USA
W. Daelemans, Tilburg University, Netherlands
D. Dowe, Monash University, Australia
D. Estival, University of Melbourne, Australia
J. Feldman, International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, USA
L. Giles, NEC Research Institute, Princeton, USA
J. Gregor, University of Tennessee, USA
C. de la Higuera, LIRMM, France
T. Knuutila, University of Turku, Finland
E. Makinen, University of Tampere, Finland
L. Miclet, ENSSAT, Lannion, France.
G. Nagaraja, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India
H. Ney, University of Technology, Aachen, Germany
J. Nicolas, IRISA, France
R. Parekh, Iowa State University, USA
L. Pitt, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
D. Powers, Flinders University, Australia
L. Reeker, National Science Foundation, USA
C. Samuelsson, Lucent Technologies, USA
A. Sharma, University of New South Wales, Australia.
E. Vidal, U. Politecnica de Valencia, Spain


Local Arrangements Committee

Dale Grosvenor, Iowa State University, USA.
K. Balakrishnan, Iowa State University, USA.
R. Parekh, Iowa State University, USA
J. Yang, Iowa State University, USA.


Conference Format and Proceedings

The conference will include oral and possibly poster presentations of
accepted papers, a small number of tutorials and invited talks. All accepted
papers will appear in the conference proceedings to be published by a major
publisher. (Negotiations are underway with Springer-Verlag regarding the
publication of ICGI-98 proceedings as a volume in their Lecture Notes in
Artificial Intelligence a subseries of the Lecture Notes in Computer


Submission of Papers

Postscript versions of the papers no more than 12 pages long, (including
figures, tables, and references), prepared according to the formatting
guidelines should be submitted electronically to The formatting guidelines (including
commonly used word-processor macros and templates) will be placed online

In those rare instances where authors might be unable to submit postscript
versions of their papers electronically, we will try to accomodate them.

Each paper will be rigorously refereed by at least 2 reviewers for technical
soundness, originality, and clarity of presentation.


The relevant schedule for paper submissions is as follows:

* March 1, 1998. Deadline for receipt of manuscripts
* April 21, 1998. Notification of acceptance
* May 15, 1998. Camera ready copies due


Submission of Proposals for Tutorials

The conference will include a small number of short (2-hour) tutorials on
selected topics in grammatical inference. Some examples of possible tutorial
topics are: Hidden Markov Models, Grammatical Inference Applications in
Computational Biology and PAC learnability of Grammars. This list is meant
only to be suggestive and not exhaustive. Those interested in presenting a a
tutorial should submit a proposal (in plain text format) to by electronic mail:

* A brief abstract (300 words or less) describing the topics to be
* A brief description of the target audience and their expected
* A brief curriculum vitae including the proposer's relevant
qualifications and publications

The relevant schedule for tutorials is as follows:

* March 1, 1998. Deadline for receipt of tutorial proposals
* April 1, 1998. Notification of acceptance
* May 15, 1998. Tutorial notes due

Upcoming Events

  1. Second Tbilisi Symposium on Language, Logic and Computation
  2. 32nd Colloquium of Linguistics
  3. 1997 International Workshop on Parsing Technologies
  4. LACL'97, Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics 1997
  5. DGfS/CL'97
  6. CSSP 1997, The Paris Syntax and Semantics Conference
  7. European Colloquium on the Boundaries of Morphology and Syntax
  8. MT Summit VI: "Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future"
  9. Translating and The Computer 19
  10. LFG'98, 1998 Lexical-Functional Grammar Conference
  11. Eighth International Conference on Functional Grammar
  12. The 1998 Australian Linguistics Institute
  13. EURALEX'98, 8th International Congress of the European Association for Lexicography

Second Tbilisi Symposium on Language, Logic and Computation

Date: 15.-20. September 1997
Place: Tbilisi, Georgia

Second Tbilisi Symposium
Language, Logic and Computation
Tbilisi, Georgia
September 15-20, 1997

The Georgian Centre for Language, Logic and Speech, based at Tbilisi
State University will host the SECOND TBILISI SYMPOSIUM on Language, Logic
and Computation as a means of foresting contacts and sharing of scientific
experience in mentioned fields between scholars from West and C&EE including

Co-chairs: R. Cooper (Gothenburg University, Gothenburg),
T. Gamkrelidze (Oriental Institure, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Tbilisi).
A. Anisimov (Kiev State University, Kiev),
J. Antidze (Institute of Applied Mathematics of Tbilisi State
University, Tbilisi).
E. Engdahl (Gothenburg University, Gothenburg)
G. Erbach ( German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI),
J. Ginzburg ( The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem),
S. Jablonski (Moscow State University, Moscow),
N. Leontjeva (Institute of USA&Canada, Russian Academy of Sciences,
I. Melchuk (Montreal University, Montreal),
R. Omanadze (Institute of Applied Mathematics at Tbilisi State
University, Tbilisi),
M. Ratsa (Institute of Mathematics at the Centre of Computation,
Moldavian Academy of Sciences, Kishinev),
E. Vallduvi ( Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona).

Ju. Apresjan ( Institute for Information Transsmision Problems,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow),
Ju. Ershov (Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Dpt. of Russian
Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk),
J. Gippert ( University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt a/M),
D. de Jongh (Institute of Logic, Language, Information,Amsterdam),
A. Voronkov ( Uppsala Universirty, Uppsala).


Monday, September 15 - arrival

Tuesday, September 16

First Session

10 - 10.45 Invited lecture
Dick de Jongh (Amsterdam, Netherlands).
Propositional theories in intuitionistic and modal logics.

10.45 - 11.15
Barbara Partee (UMass, Amherst, USA) and Vladimir Borschev (VINITI,
Moscow, Russia) -- Integrating Lexical and Formal Semantics: Genitives,
Relational Nouns, and Type-Shifting

11.15 - 11.45
T.N. Macharashvili (National Health Management Center, Tbilisi, Georgia) and
I.V. Gagoidze (Medical Institute "Sakartvelo", Tbilisi, Georgia) -- Text as a
chaotic Time Series

11.45 -- 12.15 Coffee break

12.15 - 12.45
Beata Gyuris (Lorand Eotvos University, Budapest, Hungary) -- Analysis of
Hungarian Adverbial Quantifiers in a Generalized Quantifier Framework

12.45 - 13.15
R. Asatiani (Oriental Institute of Georgian Academy of Sciences),
W. Gonet (Institute of Inglish, Dublin, Poland) -- Semantics
and Typology of Yes/No Particles (A Cross-Linguistic Study)

13.15 - 13.45
Jan van Kuppevelt (Amsterdam, Netherlands) -- Discourse structure and
semantic versus pragmatic inference

13.45 - 15.30 Lunch Break

Second Session
15.30 -- 16.00 N. Chanishvili (Tbilisi State University) -- Semantics of
Passivisation in Georgian

16.00 -- 16.30
T. D. Grigorashvili (Oriental Institute of Georgian Academy of Sciences) --
Co-ordinating conjunction in Georgian

16.30 -- 17.00
J. Antidze (Institute of Applied Mathematics of Tbilisi State University,
Tbilisi) -- Montague Grammar for enlarged Fragment of Georgian Language

17.00 -- 17.30 Coffee break

17.30 -- 18.00
M. Ivanishvili (Oriental Institute of Georgian Academy of Sciences) --
Cultural and Logical bases for duplicate forms in Proto-Languages

18.15 -- 18.45
M. Sakhokia (Oriental Institute of Georgian Academy of Sciences) --
Deep Reconstructions in Morpho-Syntax: - Logic of Language

18.45 -- 19.15
N. Shengelaia (Tbilisi State University) -- Approaches to the General
Theory of Minor Words

Wednesday, September 17

First Session
9.30 -- 10.15 Invited lecture
Voronkov, Andrej (Lund, Sweden)
Automated reasoning with equality.

10.15 - 10.45
Teimuraz Kutsia (Tbilisi State University, Georgia) --
Semantics and Proof Theory of Disjunctive Logic Programs
with Implicative Goals

10.45 - 11.15
Philippe Schlenker (MIT, USA -- Fondation Thiers, France) -- Syntax =
Parsing? The insertion of adjectives in German DP

Coffee break 11.15 - 11.45

11.45 -- 12.15
Stephan Oepen (Saarbr"ucken University, Germany) and
Daniel Flickinger (Stanford University, USA) -- Competence and Performance
Profiling for HPSG Grammars; A Grammar Engineering Experiment.

12.15 -- 12.45
Gregor Erbach (DFKI, Saarbr"ucken, Germany) -- Mulinex: Multilingual
Indexing, Navigation and Editing Extension for the World-Wide Web

12.45 -- 13.15
Nina Leontieva (Institute of the USA and Canada, Russian Academy of
Sciences, Russia) -- Logic Possibilities of one Semantic Dictionary

13.15 -- 13.30
M. Tandashvili (Institute of Linguistics, Georgian Academy of Sciences) --
Concerning the Structure of the Electronic Databank of Caucasian Languages

13.30 -- 13.45
N. Tsuleiskiri (Department of General Linguistics, Kutaisi State
University) -- Linguistic Correlations of Speech Behaviour as
Socio-semantic Units

13.45 - 15.30 Lunch Break

Second Session

15.30 -16.15 Invited lecture
Apresjan, Ju. D. (Moscow, Russia)
About new explanatory dictionary of Russian synonyms.

16.15 - 16.45
Levan Chkhaidze, Tsitsino Kvantaliani, T. Kvinikadze (Georgian
Academy of Sciences, Georgia) -- Electronic Dictionary of Georgian
Verb Stems

16.45 - 17.15
George Chikoidze (Academy of Sciences, Georgia) -- Net
representation of reversible Morphologic Processor

17.15 - 17.45 Coffee break

17.45 - 18.15
L. Margvelani, L. Samsonadze, N. Javashvili (Georgian Academy of
Sciences, Georgia) -- Computer Aid for Georgian Morphology Teaching

18.15 - 18.45
E. Soselia (Oriental Institute of Georgian Academy of Sciences) --
For the typology of the Kartvelian Color Term Systems

18.45 -- 19.00
K Datukishvili (Institute of Linguistics, Georgian Academy of Sciences) --
Some Questions of Computer Synthesis of Verbs in Georgian (Computer
Processing of Natural Language)

19.00 -- 19.15
R. Kurdadze (Tbilisi State University) -- The ablaut grade role in
classification of Georgian vowel alternating verbs in the Computer
analysis of the text.
20.00 -- Party

Thursday, September 18

Morning Session
9.30 -- 10.15 Invited lecture
Yu. Ershov (Novosibirsk) -- Dynamic logic on admissible sets

10.15 -- 10.45 Konstantin Pkhakadze (Vekua Institute of Applied
Mathematics, Georgia)
(MG)MG= -Resolution and Its Soundness and Completeness in a Theory (T)T=

10.45 - 11.45
Paul Dekker (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands) and Robert van Rooy
(Universit"at Stuttgart) -- Intentional Identity and Information Exchange

11.15 - 11.45
Rob Koeling (Groningen, Netherlands) -- Moving on the Dialogue
Game Board

11.45 - 12.15 Coffee break

12.15 - 12.45
Robin Cooper (Gothenburg, Sweden) Information states, attitudes and

12.45 - 13.15
G. Kantaria (Tbilisi State University) -- The Problem of References in

13.15 - 14.00 Invited lecture
Gippert, Jost (Frankfurt a/M)
Multilingual text retrieval - requirements and solutions

14.00 - 15.45 Lunch Break

15.45 -- half day trip
(for example Mtskheta);

Friday, September 19
one day trip (supposedly Kakheti);

Saturday, September 20


Georgia is the ancient country situated between Black and Kaspian
seas, Caucasus Mountains and Turkey. This is the country of Golden Fleece,
myth of Argonauts, Jason and Medea, Promethee, chained to the Caucasus
mountains. Tbilisi - capital of Georgia - has more than 1 million in habitants.
It is situated some 100-150 km to the South of main Caucasus ridge, in the
beautiful valley of the river Mtkvari, surrounded by the green slopes of the
Caucasus spurs. The city has a long (1500 year) history and
abounds in historical and cultural memorials. Georgia is famous for its
high quality wines, exquisite cuisine and cordial hospitality.

The main site of the Symposium, Tbilisi State University, is the chief
centre of education in the country, and has several outstanding scholars
in science, art and politics among its graduates.

The aim site of first trip, Mtskheta, is the ancient capital of
Georgia, situated some 20 kilometres from Tbilisi and abounds in
architectural and historical monuments, some of them are witnesses of
the first steps of Christianity in Georgia (IV century).

The area of the other tour is Kakheti, which apart from besides its
cultural memorials is distinguished by excellent grapes and wines produced
in this most vineal region of Georgia.


GENERAL: I. van Loon (chair, co-coordinator of Project "Elsnet goes East",
H. Melin (KTH, Stockholm),
M. Butskhrikidze (Lorand Eotvos University, Budapest).

LOCAL: T. Khurodze (chair, pro-rector of Tbilisi State University)
N. Chanishvili, G. Chankvetadze, L. Mchedlishvili, K.Pkhakadze,
T. Kutsia, Kh. Rukhaia, N. Shengelaja (all - Tbilisi State University);
R. Asatiani, G. Chikoidze, L. Chkhaidze, N. Javashvili, E. Soselia,
M. Tandashvili, E. Tavadze (Georgian Academy of Sciences).


Besides of the collection volume of 3 pages abstracts, publication
of Proceedings of Symposium is planned. Therefore it will be very convenient
for that end, if participants bring here with them the complete vershions of
their papers (8-12 p.p.) ready for print.

Registration fee - 180 ECU (not obligatory for guests from C&EE
including NIS); it will be paid in US dollars or DM after arrival in Tbilisi.
The registration fees cover:
* the collection volume of the 3 pages abstracts,
* the breaks (coffee, tea, cakes),
* sight-seeing tours (Mtskheta, Kakheti),
* banquet

Practically the only way of arrival in Tbilisi is by air.
If direct flight from your departure point does not exist, the preferable
ways are via Istambul or Frankfurt (for Western guests) and via Moscow
(for C&EE including NIS).

Dr. Gregor Erbach is arranging a group flight for the Western
European participants from Frankfurt. You can contact him for more

The guests can choose to stay in hotels ("Muza"," Lia's Guest House")
or at Georgian families. Accommodation costs are approximately the following;

* one-place room - $ 60 per day (with breakfast)
* one-place room - $ 80 (including breakfast and dinner)
* two-place room - $ 70 per day (with breakfast and dinner)
* families - $ 45 (including breakfast and dinner)

For reservation, please, send by e-mail as soon as possible the
information including
* your name
* your affiliation, professional address, e-mail, phone and fax number
* your dates of arrival and departure
* the type of accommodation you need (single/double room in hotel, family).
* the name of the acompanying person (if any).

For this purpose and for additional information, please, use the
following addresses:

George Chikoidze
Inst. of Control Systems
34, K. Gamsakhurdia Av.
380060 Tbilisi
Phone: (+995 32) 38 21 36

Ingrid van Loon
Faculty of Mathematics, Computer
Science, Physics & Astronomy
University of Amsterdam
Plantage Muidergracht 24
NL-1018 TV Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Phone: +31 20 525 5200
Fax: +31 20 525 5101

*** This information is also avialable via

32nd Colloquium of Linguistics

Date: 17.-19. September 1997
Place: Kassel, Germany

32nd Colloquium of Linguistics

All Fields of Linguistics

September 17-19, 1997
University of Kassel

Ab sofort koennen Sie die neuesten Informationen, darunter das
aktuelle Programm, Termin- und Adressenuebersichten sowie eine
Formularmaske zur Anmeldung als passiver Teilnehmer am Kongress im WWW

1997 International Workshop on Parsing Technologies

Date: 17.-20. September 1997
Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
September 17-20, 1997

sponsored by
Special Interest Group on Parsing Technologies
(A Special Interest Group of the
Association for Computational Linguistics)

IWPT'97 is the fifth workshop in a series of parsing technologies
workshops organized by ACL/SIGPARSE. This series of workshops was
initiated by Masaru Tomita (CMU) in 1989. This first workshop
(Pittsburgh & Hidden Valley) was followed by workshops in Cancun
(Mexico), Tilburg & Durbuy (Netherlands/Belgium) and Prague & Karlovy
Vary (Czech Republic). IWPT'97 will be held in and near MIT in
Cambridge, MA, USA.


Theoretical and practical studies of parsing algorithms for natural
language sentences, texts, fragments, dialogues, ill-formed sentences,
speech input, multi-dimensional (pictorial) languages, and parsing
issues arising or viewed in a multimodal context.


This year's meeting will take place at MIT, in Cambridge, Massachusetts,
USA, September 17-20.
All talks will be held in the Wong Auditorium, located in the Jack C.
Tang Center.

LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS: Robert C. Berwick (MIT), Charles Yang (MIT)
Send queries about local arrangements to, or via the
conference home page.


Participants must pre-register with MIT Conference Services. The
simplest way to register is online, via the conference web page. Note
that due to security reasons (i.e., until Rivest can really prove that
Micali cannot crack RSA :-), we cannot accept credit cards via the web.

Alternatively, please send the following information by August 1, 1997,
to the address below:

MIT Conference Services Office
Room 7-111
77 Massachusetts Ave.
Cambridge, MA
fax: 1-617-253-7002

Name: ______________________________________
Organization: ______________________________________
Mailing address: ______________________________________
Phone: ______________________________________
Fax: ______________________________________
email: ______________________________________
Expected arrival and departure date and times:

Conference banquet: check if you WILL or WILL NOT attend conference
____ YES ____ NO

General or Student registration: _______ General ________ =


Payment: by Visa or Mastercard (preferred); or check (drawn on ...
We accept faxed registrations w/credit card numbers (Mastercard or Visa
We regret that we cannot accept credit card information via email.

Registration fee: (includes copy of proceedings)
General: $ 60.00
Student rate: $ 30.00

Gala Banquet: $ 30.00

All amounts are in US dollars.

TOTAL FEE ENCLOSED: ________________

Onsite registration will be available 7:30 am to 5:00 pm, September 17
and 18.



The Conference Services Office has reserved 75 rooms at the Hyatt
Regency Hotel. The Hyatt is located on the west border of MIT, within
walking distance to the meeting. The Hotel has two restaurants, a
health club facility with indoor pool, and parking is available. The
conference rate will be $186 single or double per night plus local
applicable taxes.

Guests should contact the Hotel DIRECTLY to secure their reservations,
1-617-492-1234; fax: 1-617-441-6906. The conference rate is only
guaranteed until three weeks prior to the start of the meeting. For a
list of alternative housing arrangements,please see the conference web
page section,



The nearest airport is Boston, Logan Airport.
Further travel information may be found on the conference web page.


Paper presentations will begin Wednesday, September 17.

A gala banquet will be held Friday evening, 7pm, at the Boston Computer
Guests will be able to tour the entire musuem, including the giant
walk-through computer,
and there will be other special activities.

The workshop ends Saturday at noon, September 20, but arrangements have
been made for people to stay until Sunday, to take advantage of airline

Organization IWPT'97
General chair:
Harry C. Bunt, ITK, Tilburg University, The Netherlands

Local chair:
Robert C. Berwick, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

Program committee:

Anton Nijholt, University of Twente, The Netherlands (chair)
Masaru Tomita, Stanford University, USA

Bernard Lang, INRIA, Paris, France

Mats Wir=C8n, Telia Research AB, Sweden
Alon Lavie, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
K. Vijay-Shanker, University of Delaware, USA
Aravind Joshi, University of Pennsylvania, USA
Bob Carpenter, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Robert C. Berwick, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Ken Church, AT&T Laboratories, USA
Makoto Nagao, Kyoto University, Japan
David Weir, University of Sussex, UK
Harry C. Bunt, ITK, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
Mark Johnson, Brown University, USA
Eva Hajicov=B7, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Martin Kay, Rank Xerox, Palo Alto, USA
Mark Steedman, University of Pennsylvania, USA
Ronald Kaplan, Rank Xerox, Palo Alto, USA
Kent Wittenburg, Bellcore, USA

LACL'97, Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics 1997

Date: 22.-24. September 1997
Place: Nancy, France

Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics 1997


The LACL conferences

The first edition of the LACL conference, which was held in Nancy in September
1996, was very successful.This proves that there is a growing interest
in the use of logic in natural language processing, both for syntactic and
semantic models. LACL'97 will continue to bring together linguists, logicians,
philosophers and computer scientists around this theme in order to present the
latest results and to discuss the different approaches.

Programme Committee

Chairman: A. Lecomte (U. Grenoble 2)
B. Carpenter (Bell Labs)
M. Dymetman (Rank-Xerox, Grenoble)
C. Gardent (U. Saarbrucken)
Ph. de Groote (INRIA & CRIN, Nancy)
S. Kulick (U. Pennsylvania)
F. Lamarche (INRIA & CRIN, Nancy)
M. Moortgat (OTS, Utrecht)
G. Morrill (UPC, Barcelone)
A. Ranta. (U. Helsinki & U. Tampere)
P. Saint-Dizier (IRIT, Toulouse)
E. Stabler (UCLA, Los Angeles)
E. Villemonte de la Clergerie (INRIA, Rocquencourt)

Organising Committee

Chairman: G. Perrier
V. Antoine, D. Bechet, A.-L. Charbonnier, F. Lamarche and A. Savary.
INRIA-Lorraine & CRIN-CNRS, Nancy.


Monday, September 22
8:45-9:30: Welcome

9:30-10:20: Invited Talk I JOACHIM LAMBEK (McGill University, Montreal)
Some mathematical approaches to natural language

10:20-10:35: Break

10:35-11:35: Session 1
M. KANDULSKI Strong equivalence of generalized Ajduckiewicz
and Lambek grammars

S. SHAUMYAN, P.HUDAK & M.JONES Type-Directed Natural Language

11:35-11:50: Break

11:50-12:40: Discussion I Logic-Mathematical formalisms and Grammars

12:40-14:00: Lunch

14:00-14:50: Invited Talk II DENIS BOUCHARD (Universite du Quebec, Montreal)
Ellipsis of the Noun and of the Determiner: recoverability,
number and partitivity

14:50-15:05: Break

15:05-16:35: Session 2
T. CORNELL Derivational and Representational Views of
Minimalist Syntactic Calculi

F. MORAWIETZ & T. CORNELL Approximating Principles and
Parameters Grammars with MSO Tree Logics

J. HODAS A Linear Logic Treatment of Phrase Structure
Grammars For Unbounded Dependencies

16:35-16:45: Break

16:45-17:35: Discussion II What formalisms for Minimalism?

Tuesday, September 23
9:30-10:20: Invited Talk III YVES LAFONT (C.N.R.S., Marseille)
Applications of Phase Semantics

10:20-10:35: Break

10:35-11:35: Session 3
E. KRAAK Italian Object Cliticization: a deductive approach

H. HENDRIKS A Proof-Theoretic Analysis of Intonation

11:35-11:50: Break

11:50-12:40: Discussion III Advantages of the Proof-Theoretic Approach

12:40-14:00: Lunch

14:00-14:50: Invited Talk IV MARK JOHNSON (Brown University, Providence)
Features and Resources

14:50-15:05: Break

15:05-16:35: Session 4
P. BLACKBURN Feature Logics in Hybrid Languages

D. HEYLEN Underspecification in Subsumption-based Type-Logical

N. FRANCEZ On the direction of fibring feature logics with
concatenation logics

16:35-16:45: Break

16:45-17:35: Discussion IV Comparing Feature Logics

20:00: Conference Dinner

Wednesday, September 24
9:30-10:30: Session 5
An Operational Model for Parsing Fixed-Mode DCGs

D. TATAR & D. ZAIU Unification-based and object-oriented based
approaches to grammars

10:30-10:45: Break

10:45-11:45: Session 6
Z. LUO & P.C. CALLAGHAN Linguistic categories in mathematical
vernacular and their type-theoretic semantics

M. KINNUNEN Natural language interface to regular expressions

11:45-12:00: Break

12:00-12:50: Final Discussion

12:50-14:00: Lunch


Nancy, which is the capital of the French department Meurthe et Moselle, is
easily accessible from Paris (Gare de l'Est) by train in about three hours.
There are also direct trains from Strasbourg, Luxembourg and Dijon.
The nearest international airports are the ones of Paris, Strasbourg
and Luxembourg.
The LACL conference will take place in the LORIA building at the address:

Batiment LORIA
Technopole de Nancy Brabois
Campus Scientifique
615 rue du jardin botanique, B.P. 101
F 54602 Villers-les-Nancy Cedex

For more information about the location, please take a look at the WWW
server or send a mail to Francois Lamarche.


The registration fees for the conference are the following:

Before August 15 After August 15

Regular 700 FRF 900 FRF
Student 500 FRF 700 FRF

Both regular and student fees include the conference proceedings, the coffee
breaks, the lunches, and the conference dinner (September 23). Tickets for
additional conference dinners (for accompanying persons) can be purchased at
150 FRF.
You may register by surface mail, fax, or e-mail. Please fill in the enclosed
registration form and send it to:

Bureau des Relations Exterieures - LACL'97
615 rue du jardin botanique, B.P. 101
F 54602 Villers-les-Nancy Cedex

Fax (internat.): + 33 3 83 27 83 19
(nat.): 03 83 27 83 19



Payments are accepted in FRENCH FRANCS ONLY. The enclosed payment
may be one of the following forms:

o Cheque in French currency, drawn on a French bank, made to the order
of "Agent comptable de l'INRIA";

o Eurocheque in French currency, made to the order of "Agent comptable
de l'INRIA";

o bank transfer to the order of "Agent comptable de l'INRIA" (with your
name and LACL'97); the bank account number is:
at the bank "Tresorerie Generale des Yvelines". Please ask your bank to
arrange a transfer at no cost for the recipient.

You may also pay the registration fee by credit card at the moment of the


Hotel rooms ranging from one to three star hotels are available. For a reser-
vation, please phone to the hotel, fill in the enclosed accommodation form and
send it rapidly to the hotel (preferably before September) to confirm the

Hotel Akena * Hotel Crystal *
41 rue Raymond Poincare 5 rue Chanzy
54000 Nancy 54 000 Nancy
Tel: 03 83 28 02 13 Tel: 03 83 35 41 55
Fax: 03 83 90 00 45 Fax: 03 83 37 84 85
Price (Tarif ): 175 FRF Price (Tarif ): 200-300 FRF

Hotel Albert 1er ** Hotel Mercure-Thiers ***
3 rue de l'armee Patton 11 rue Raymond Poincare
54000 Nancy 54 000 Nancy
Tel: 03 83 40 31 24 Tel: 03 83 39 75 75
Fax: 03 83 28 47 78 Fax: 03 83 32 78 17
Price (Tarif ): 295-310 FRF Price (Tarif ): 475 FRF

Registration form

Please Print

Name : ....................................................................

Affiliation : .............................................................

Address : .................................................................


Zip code : .................... Country : ................................

Telephone : ................... Fax : ....................................

E-mail : ...................................................................

Please check the appropriate box:

o Regular fee 700 FRF
o Student rate(*) 500 FRF
o Late registration fee 900 FRF
o Student(*), late registration 700 FRF
o One additional ticket for the conference dinner 150 FRF


(*) Enclose a copy of your student card

Mode of payment :

o Enclosed cheque
o Bank transfer(**)
o Credit card(***): Type: o VISA, o MasterCard.

(**) Enclose a copy of the transfer order.
(***) Your card will be charged at the time of the conference. Please take
it with you on site.

If you are a vegetarian, please check the box o

Date: Signature:


Return to

| INRIA-Lorraine |
| Bureau des Relations Exterieures - LACL'97 |
| 615 rue du jardin botanique, B.P. 101 |
| F 54602 Villers-les-Nancy Cedex |

Hotel reservation form

Please Print

Hotel (Hotel) : ...........................................................

Name (Nom) : ............................................................

First Name (Prenom) : ..................................................

Affiliation (Etablissement) : ..............................................

Address (Adresse) : ......................................................


Zip code (Code postal) : ............... Country (Pays) : ...............

Telephone (Telephone) : ............... Fax (Telecopieur) : ...............

Accompanied by Mr./Ms. : ............................................
(Accompagne de M./Mme )

Type of room (type de chambre) :

o single
o double (two persons - double bed) (deux personnes - lit double)
o twin (two persons - two beds) (deux personnes - deux lits)

Date of arrival in Nancy (Date d'arrivee a Nancy) : .....................

Date of departure (Date de depart) : ....................................

Number of nights (Nombre de nuits) : ...................................

Credit card (Carte de credit) : o VISA, o MasterCard.

Card number (Numero de carte) : ........................................

Cardholder's name (Nom du titulaire) : .................................

Expiration date (Date d'expiration) : ....................................

Date: Signature:


Return to the selected hotel


Date: 8.-10. October 1997
Place: Heidelberg, Germany

Dear linguists,

The program of the sixth meeting of the special interest group on
computationallinguistics of the German Linguistics Society (DGfS/CL
97) is now available at the following URL:

Das Programm der 6. Fachtagung der Sektion CL der DGfS ist unter
folgender URL verf|gbar:

CSSP 1997, The Paris Syntax and Semantics Conference

Date: 16.-18. October 1997
Place: Paris, France
Info: http//

CSSP 1997

16-18 Octobre 1997
Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Campus Jussieu,
2, place Jussieu, 75005 Paris.

Farkas, Hans Kamp, Ruth Kempson, Ivan A. Sag


Programme provisoire / Provisional program

Jeudi 16 octobre

9h-9h10 : Ouverture du colloque

9h10-10h10 : Conferencier invite, H. Kamp (Stuttgart) (titre

Semantique / Semantics

10h30-11h: C. Condoravdi (CYCORP), Presuppositional Underspecification:
The Case of 'Ksana'

11h-11h30 : L. Dekydtspotter (Indiana), Futur Proche et Futur Simple:
Reference et Quantification

11h30-12h : S. Gennari (Brown U.), Tense, Aktionsart and Sequence of

12h-12h30 : J. Lecarme (CNRS-2LC), Nominal tense and tense theory

- --------------

Syntaxe / Syntax

14h-14h30 : D. Pesetsky (MIT), The Interpretation of Immovability

14h30-15h : J. Aoun (U. of South California), J. Nunes (Unicamp),
Vehicle change and Move F

15h30-16h : J.-P. Koenig (SUNY), K. Lambrecht (U. of Texas), French
relative clauses as secondary predicates: A case study in Construction

16h-16h30 : L. Sadler (Essex), Lexical integrity, small constructions
and the morpho-syntax of Welsh Clitics

16h30-17h : S. Kahane (TALANA), I. Melc'uk (College de France),
Synthese des phrases extraction : aspects semantiques et

17h-17h30 : D. Kolliakou (Groningen), Towards an Inflectional Theory
of Definiteness

17h30-19h30 : Reception

19h30-20h30 : Conferencier invite : Ivan A Sag (Stanford)
Satisfying Constraints on Extraction and Adjunction

- -------------------

Vendredi 17 octobre

9h-10h : Conferencier invite : Cinque (Venise), On the Positions
of Negative Phrases

Syntaxe-semantique / Syntax-semantics

10h30-11h : M. Honcoop (HIL Leiden), Reconstruction in and of itself

11h-11h30 : J. Kuhn (IMS Stuttgart), The syntax and semantics of split
NPs and floating quantifiers in Lexical Functional Grammar

11h30-12h : B. Crysmann (Saarbrucken), (Im)proper Quantifiers and
Clitic Placement in European Portuguese

12h-12h30 : D. Hardt (Villanova), A Dynamic identity Theory of

- ----------------
Semantique / Semantics

14h-14h30 : F. Newmeyer (U. of Washington), The perceptual deictic
construction in English

14h30-15h : H. Demirdache (U. of British Columbia), On descriptions in
(Lilloet) Salish

15h-15h30 : C. Pinon (Dusseldorf), On a distributive marker in

16h-16h30 : I. Derzhanski (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences),
Monotonicity and interrogation

16h30-17h : A. Franck (Rank Xerox), Deontic conditionals and
conterfactual asymmetry

17h-17h30 : R. Van Valin (SUNY), Generalized Semantic Roles and the
Syntax-Semantics Interface

- -------------------

Samedi 18 octobre : Les indefinis / Indefinites

9h-10h : Conferencier invite : R. Kempson (Londres) On Concepts of
Scope - A Dynamic Perspective

10h30-11h : A. Giannakidou (Groningen), Free-choice indefinites in

11h-11h30 : L.M. Tovena (Geneve), J. Jayez (EHESS), Irreference vs.
non-veridicality : the case of any

11h30-12h : M. Becker (UCLA), The Some Indefinites

12h-12h30 : I. Comorovski (Nancy), Functional indefinites and the
proportion problem

- --------

14h-14h30 : A. Cohen, N. Erteschik-Shir (Ben-Gurion U)., Are bare
plurals indefinites?

14h30-15h : L. McNally (Barcelone), V. van Geenhoven (Nimegue),
Redefining the weak/strong distinction

15h30-16h : T. Reinhart (OTS/Tel Aviv), Y. Winter (OTS), The
quantificational origins of 'referential' indefinites

16h30-17h30: Conferencier invite : D. Farkas (Santa-Cruz) (titre

Reserve / Alternates

Syntaxe / Syntax :

C. Kennedy (Northwestern U), J. Merchant, (UCSC), Comparatives and
bound ellipsis

Syntaxe-semantique / Syntax-semantics :

M. Butt (Xerox PARC), T. Holloway King (Stanford), Focus, Adjacency
and Nonspecificity

M.-H. Cote (MIT), Variables situationnelles et individuelles dans
la quantification existentielle: vers une solution la restriction
sur les SN definis

Semantique / Semantics

T. Kurafuji (Rutgers), Definiteness of Koto in Japanese and its

Les indefinis / Indefinites:

M. Romero (UMass), Intensional Functional Readings and Transparency

E. Villalta (UMass), G. Boye (Paris 7), Combien de N...? Combien
... de N?, quelle est la question?

- -----------------------

For further information, contact:
Daniele Godard, Universite Paris 7, Linguistique.
WWW: http//

European Colloquium on the Boundaries of Morphology and Syntax

Date: 23.-25. October 1997
Place: Rome, Italy

Dipartimento di Linguistica
Universitý degli Studi di Roma Tre

October 23 - 25


October 23th, 15.00
Sala Capizucchi
Piazza Campitelli 3

15.00 The Magnifico Rettore, Biancamaria Bosco Tedeschini
Lalli and Raffaele Simone, the Director of the
Department of Linguistics, open the proceedings

I Session
Syntax and pragmatics

15.20 Elisabet Engdahl (Gothenburg University): Integrating
pragmatics into a constraint-based grammar
16.05 Mara Frascarelli (Universitý degli Studi di Roma Tre):
Subject, nominative case,agreement and focus
16.50-17.05 Break

17.05 E'. Katalin Kiss (Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
Budapest): The English cleft construction: the
17.35 realization of an FP projection
Rosanna Sornicola (Universitý degli Studi di Napoli
18.05-18.20 "Federico II"): The interplay of pragmatics and syntax
in the grammaticalization of topic and focus
General discussion

October 24th, 9.30 a.m.
Aula riunioni, IVth floor
Via del Castro Pretorio 20

II Session
Morphological phenomena and their boundaries

9.30 Paola Benincý (Universitý degli Studi di Padova):
Fenomeni al confine fra morfologia e sintassi nella
morfologia verbale di alcuni dialetti italiani
10.00 settentrionali
Antonietta Bisetto e Sergio Scalise (Universitý di
10.30-10.45 Ferrara): Compounding: syntax and /or morphology?
Marianne Mithun (University of California, Santa
Barbara) e Greville G. Corbett (University of Surrey):
ore 11.30 Incorporation and derivation: issues in word-internal
ore 12.15 Annarita Puglielli e Marco Svolacchia (Universitý
degli Studi di Roma Tre): the so-called verbal complex
in some Cushitic languages
Lorenzo Renzi (Universitý degli Studi di Padova):
Clitic or affix? The case of the Roumanian article

October 24th, 14.30
Aula riunioni, IVth piano
Via del Castro Pretorio 20

14.30 Christoph Schwarze (Universität Konstanz): Problemi
connessi con il trattamento della morfologia in LFG
15.15 Maria Zaleska (Uniwersytet Waeszawski): The irrealis
in the Polish language: a question of verbal moods,
15.45-16 conjunctions or the modal particle 'by'?
16.00 Break

16.30-16.45 Johan van der Auwera (University of Antwerp):
Morphology and syntax in German and Dutch verbal
General discussion

III Session
Constituent order and other syntactic matters

16.45 Claire Blanche-Benveniste (UniversitÈ de Provence,
Aix-Marseille I): L'ordre des constituants en
17.15 franÁais parlÈ contemporain
Lunella Mereu (Universitý degli Studi di Roma Tre):
Agreement, pronominalization and word order in
20 pragmatically-oriented languages

Colloquium Dinner

October 25th, 9.30
Aula riunioni, IVth piano
Via del Castro Pretorio 20

9.30 Nigel Vincent (University of Manchester): Lexical and
10.00-10.15 historical syntax
General discussion

IV Session
Word classes
Annibale Elia (Universitý degli Studi di Salerno):
10.45-11 Verbi supporto e morfosintassi delle lingue romanze
Vincenzo Lo Cascio e Elisabetta Jezek (Universiteit
van Amsterdam): Thematic-roles assignment and aspect
11.45-12.15 in Italian pronominal verbs: a lexicological study
Stella Markantonatou (National Technical University
of Athens): Verb
alternations without lexical rules: the case of
English motion verbs
12.15-12.30 General discussion


Location of the colloquium
The afternoon session on October 23th will take place in
the Sala Capizucchi of the Centro Studi Italo-francesi of
the University of Roma Tre (tel. 6797104) at Piazza
Campitelli 3. This is in the historical old centre of
Rome, between Piazza Venezia and Largo Argentina (buses
from Termini station: nos. 75, 57 (go past the station);
64, 65 (start in station square, but watch out for
skilled pickpockets!); it takes about 20 - 30 minutes
including waiting and walking times.).
The colloquium will continue in the Dipartimento di
Linguistica, in Via del Castro Pretorio 20 (tel.
4959354), near the Termini station (coming out of the
station, turn right on Via Marsala, then take the third
turning on the left (Via del Castro Pretorio); the
department is located about 50 metres down, on the left
hand side, in a courtyard.
If you arrive by airplane, there's a direct train for
Termini station every hour from "Leonardo da Vinci"
Airport (alias Fiumicino); it takes 30 minutes and costs
Lit. 13.000. As well as in 'Arrivals', you can buy
tickets from a machine or a small tobacconist/newspaper
shop on the right before going through the platform
barrier. The other, more frequent trains, showing
destination Fara Sabina, only cost Lit.7000, but don't go
to Termini. Along this route, the most convenient
stations would be Ostiense or Trastevere (15-20 mins.),
from where there are buses or taxis to the centre. A taxi
from the airport (fare: Lit. 60.000 - 70.000) takes about
40 minutes for the same journey, depending on the

Hotel Information
Here is a list of hotels located in the two areas in
which the colloquium will take place. As October is still
high season in Rome, we suggest you make your
reservations as soon as possible by calling or sending a
fax to the hotels directly.
Fares (breakfast included) for some of the hotels are
reduced; when calling the hotel, you should make
reference to your taking part in the colloquium organized
by the Universitý di Roma Tre and ask for the fares which
our secretary, Mrs. G. Pagliai, has obtained for
participants at the Colloquium.
We suggest you choose one of the hotels in the old centre
of Rome, as they are located in a quieter area than the
Termini station.
The area code for all phone and fax numbers is +39-6.
Hotels in the old centre of Rome
Cesari *** Lit. 200.000 Lit. 250.000
Via di Pietra, 89/a
tel. 6792386
fax 6790882
(ask for Mrs. Cinzia ___ Lit. 250.000 (double
Farias) used as single)
Hotel Fontana *** Lit. 270.000
P.zza di Trevi, 96
tel. 6786113-6791056 Lit. 200.000
fax 6790024 Lit. 280.000
Hotel della Torre
Argentina ***
Corso Vittorio Lit. 130.000
Emanuele, 102 Lit. 180.000
tel. 6833886
fax 68801641
Hotel Erdarelli **
Via Due Macelli, 28
tel. 6791265-6784010-
fax 6790705
(ask for Mrs. Katia
(mornings) and for
Mr. Franco

Hotels near the Termini station
Massimo D'Azeglio Lit. 236.000 Lit. 315.000
Via Cavour, 18
tel./fax 4827386 Lit. 198.000 Lit. 298.000
Hotel Quirinale ****
Via Nazionale, 7
tel. 4707
fax 4820099
(ask for Mr. D. Lit. 165.000 Lit. 221.000
Nord ***
Via G. Amendola, 3
tel./fax 4885441

SR = single room with bathroom
DR = double room with bathroom

For further information please contact me by mail (Dip.
di Linguistica, Via del Castro Pretorio 20, 00185, Roma,
Italia), by e-mail ( or by fax (+39 6
Mara Frascarelli will try to solve any practical problems
you may have. She is on the organizing committee, and
will be available to answer your queries from July 1st -
31st and from September 1st onwards, every Tuesday and
Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m., by mail (at the Department
address), by telephone (+39-6-4959354), by fax (+39-6-
4957333), or via e-mail (
Best regards

MT Summit VI: "Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future"

Date: 29. October - 1. November 1997
Place: San Diego, California

MT Summit VI:
"Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future"
Catamaran Resort Hotel
San Diego, 29 October-1 November 1997

A Once-in-a-Lifetime Opportunity:
No serious MT-ite can afford to miss MT Summit VI in San Diego
next October. Hosted by the Association for Machine Translation
in the Americas (AMTA) on behalf of the International Association
for Machine Translation (IAMT), this year's Summit coincides with
the 50th anniversary of machine translation. The celebration will
be truly memorable. AMTA and its cooperating host institution,
the Information Sciences Institute/University of Southern
California, take great pleasure in inviting you to join us in
commemorating this event.

The following schedule gives an overview of the events that have
been planned:
Tuesday, 28 October: 12-hour excursion to Ensenada;
all-day workshops on Interlinguas/Standards
Wednesday, 29 October: 3-hour tutorials in morning and afternoon;
opening of exhibits/reception, 6:30 p.m.
Thursday, 30 October: Plenary and parallel sessions, 9:00 a.m.-5:30
exhibits, 10:30-5:30 p.m.;
boat cruise, 6:00-7:30 p.m.;
beach luau, 7:30 p.m.
Friday, 31 October: Plenary and parallel sessions, 9:00 a.m.-5:30
exhibits, 10:30-5:30 p.m.;
banquet, boat leaves at 6:30 p.m.
Saturday, 1 November: Plenary and parallel sessions, 9:00a.m.-5:30
exhibits, 10:30-3:00 p.m.

The Program:
A rich menu of invited talks, submitted papers, and theater-style
system presentations, together with a panel that will reunite
early MT pioneers, will give special meaning to the conference's
theme, "Machine Translation: Past, Present, and Future." In a
format combining both plenary and parallel sessions, the three-
day program, including all day Saturday, covers the trajectory of
MT across the decades from the perspective of researchers,
developers, and users. The session topics, to be addressed by
experts from around the world, include:
Early MT history
Current state of MT
MT R&D around the world
The shape of commercial MT systems
Production MT
The market perspective
What do users need?
Whither MT?
Parallel to these main topics will be a second track of sessions
that will include submitted papers and live system presentations
in a theater-style setting. All sessions will be audiotaped, and
copies of the tapes will be available for purchase on-site
shortly after each session ends.

Tutorials and Workshops
On Wednesday, 29 October, participants are offered a selection of
four 3-hour tutorials:
Morning, 9-12 a.m.
"A Gentle Introduction to MT: Theory and Current
Practice"-Eduard Hovy
"Making MT Work for You"-Marjorie Leo'n
Afternoon, 2-5 p.m.
"MT Evaluation: Old, New, and Recycled"-John White
"Postediting MT: Strategies and Methods"-Karin Spalink

In addition, two workshops-one on the subject of interlinguas and
the other on standardization-are being offered on Tuesday, 28
October, outside the framework of the conference for attendees
who wish to come a day earlier. There will be a nominal charge.
Those interested should contact the organizers directly. Steve
Helmreich ( is coordinating the workshop on
interlinguas, and Alan Melby ( is responsible for
the one on standards.

In addition to the theater-style system presentations in the
regular program, throughout the conference MT developers will
also be showcasing their latest breakthroughs in the Exhibit
Hall. Exhibits Coordinator Kim Belvin ( has put
out a call for exhibitors and is expecting a record-breaking
array of products and systems. This will be "one-stop shopping"
at its best for all MT-ites, whether their interest is in
purchasing or licensing MT systems or in viewing, understanding,
and comparing them. There will also be tabletop exhibit space,
available at a lower fee, for publishers and nonprofit research
groups. Anyone interested in exhibiting should contact Kim at the
e-mail address above as soon as possible because booths will be
assigned on a first-come, first-served basis and there may not be
enough room for all who want to exhibit.

Related Events:
Because of the celebratory nature of this year's Summit, a number
of other exciting activities will be rounding out the rest of the
conference schedule.
An all-day excursion to Ensenada, a major Mexican seaport and
tourist center, is planned for Tuesday, 28 October. This
spectacular 50-mile ride down the Baja California coast will
include a stop at Rosarito Beach; a typical Mexican lunch at a
restaurant with breathtaking views; a tour of Ensenada followed
by time for shopping, wine-tasting, museum-going, or strolling;
and an elegant gourmet dinner by the ocean at sunset-all this for
US$ 65.00.
Tutorials and registration will take place all day Wednesday,
29 October, and the conference proper will open with the 50th
Anniversary Reception at 6:30 p.m. in the exhibit area. The
reception is complimentary, sponsored in part by Logos
Box lunches will be available during the three days of the
conference. Tickets for the three lunches may be purchased for a
total of US$ 18.00.
On the morning of Thursday, 30 October, there will be a welcome
breakfast for participants' spouses or other traveling
companions, at which time they will be given suggestions of
various things to do in the San Diego area.
Thursday evening will be a double-header. At 6:00 p.m. the
hotel's magnificently detailed triple-deck sternwheeler, the "Wm.
D. Evans," will take participants and their companions on a
complimentary cruise of Mission Bay, sponsored in part by Systran
Software. During the cruise the entertainment will include
drawings for our exciting MT-oriented raffle (see separate
story), to be emceed by Bill Fry. On disembarkation at 7:30 p.m.
there will be a Hawaiian luau on the beach (US$ 20.00 per
Finally, the banquet (US$ 50.00 per person) will be held on
Friday, 31 October, on the top floor of the Bahia Hotel, a sister
property of the Catamaran, also on Mission Bay. This site was
chosen for its spectacular nighttime views stretching to Mexico
in the south and La Jolla in the north. Transportation will be
provided on the "Bahia Belle," the hotel's smaller sternwheeler.
Later in the evening the "Bahia Belle" opens to the public with a
live band and dancing; those returning from the banquet may
choose to remain on board at no extra cost and continue to cruise
around the Bay.

Site and Accommodations:
The Catamaran Resort Hotel is a tropical paradise wedged between
its own beach on Mission Bay and the public boardwalk and Pacific
Ocean just a few steps away. Its conference center is perfect for
MT Summit VI, with bright airy rooms open to terraces, gardens,
patios, and the beach on the Bay.
The hotel has a pool, jacuzzi, fitness center, and business
center. Bicycles, skates, and various types of boats are
available for rent.
The immediate vicinity offers many shops and restaurants as
well as grocery stores and carry-outs.
Hotel parking passes are available at a special conference rate
of US$ 10 for three nights.
The guest rooms are luxuriously appointed, all with doors
opening onto either a terrace or a balcony. The special
conference rates are US$ 99.00 for an interior garden view and
US$ 109.00 for a view of the bay or ocean. Rooms in the Tower
have kitchenettes and sweeping views.
Participants should make their reservations directly with the
Catamaran-in the U.S.: +1 800/288-0770; from Canada: 800/233-
8172; from elsewhere: +1 619/488-1081; fax: +1 619/488-1619.
Neither space nor rates can be guaranteed after 28 September, so
make your reservation early!

Get There for Less!
Conventions in America, the Summit's official travel agency,
offers discounts on American Airlines and Alamo Rent A Car and
lowest available fares on any airline. Call +1 800/929-4242 in
the United States and Canada or +1 619/453-3686 from elsewhere;
fax +1 619/453-7976; or e-mail Be sure to
mention Group #547.

Additional Information:
Complete registration packets were mailed at the beginning of
June to members of AAMT, AMTA, and EAMT, including the
preliminary program flier, hotel registration form, and assorted
other fliers. If you are not a member of one of the regional
associations, you may obtain this packet by contacting the MT
Summit VI Registrar: phone/fax: +1 703/716-0912; e-mail: You may also register on-line at this Website.

General Chair
Muriel Vasconcellos
President, IAMT
Phone: +1 619/272-3360
Fax: +1 619/272-3361
E-mail: MurielVasconcellos@

Program Chair
Winfield Scott Bennett
Logos Corporation
Phone: +1 201/398-8710 x 104
Fax: +1 201/398-6102

Local Arrangements Chair
Laurie Gerber
Systran Software
Phone: +1 619/459-6700 x 119
Fax: +1 619/459-8487

Exhibits Coordinator
Kim Belvin
Phone: +1 619/481-8446
Fax: +1 619/350-8613

Deborah Becker
AMTA/IAMT Focal Point
Phone/fax: +703/716-0912

Translating and The Computer 19

Date: 13.-14. November 1997
Place: London, UK

13-14 November 1997 at One Great George Street London, SW1

This well established annual event will include papers on the latest
developments and products; how organisations are adapting current
products and systems; networking opportunities and the possible ways
forward for the MT industry.

Further details from:

Nicole Adamides, Events Manager
ASLIB, The Association for Information Management,
20-24 Old Street, London, EC1V 9AP
Tel: +44 (0)171 294 3740 Fax: +44 (0)171 430 0514

LFG'98, 1998 Lexical-Functional Grammar Conference

Date: 30. June - 2. July 1998
Place: Australia

1998 Lexical-Functional Grammar Conference
Emmanuel College, The University of Queensland
June 30 - July 2, 1998

LFG98, the third in a series of international conferences, will be
held next year in Australia, just before the Australian Linguistic
Society Meeting and the two week Australian Linguistics Institute.
The conference welcomes work both within the formal architecture of
Lexical-Functional Grammar and typological, formal, and computational
work within the `spirit of LFG', as a lexicalist approach to language
employing a parallel, constraint-based framework.

Call for papers: September 1997
Abstracts and papers due: January 31, 1998
More information:
Local organizers: Christopher Manning <>
Jane Simpson <>

Eighth International Conference on Functional Grammar

Date: 6.-9. July 1998
Place: Amsterdam, the Netherlands


The biennial series on conferences on Functional Grammar will be
continued in 1998 at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands),
where a four-day conference will be held from 6th to 9th July
1998. The conference will be held on the campus of the Vrije
Universiteit and will comprise a number of plenary lectures, parallel
sessions, poster sessions and workshops, as well as a range of social

All the papers at the conference will address issues arising within
the theory of Functional Grammar, as presented in Simon C. Dik, *The
Theory of Functional Grammar* (2 parts), which is to be published
(posthumously) by Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin in the autumn of 1997. A
thematically based selection of the papers will, it is hoped, be
prepared for publication in book form.

The first call for papers will be sent out in August 1997. Those not
already on the Functional Grammar mailing list and interested in
receiving the first call or other information regarding the
conference, should contact:

Prof. J.L. Mackenzie
Department of English
Faculty of Letters
Vrije Universiteit
De Boelelaan 1105
1081 HV Amsterdam
The Netherlands
fax: +31-20-444 6500

The 1998 Australian Linguistics Institute

Date: 6.-16. July 1998
Place: Brisbane, Australia

The 1998 Australian Linguistics Institute will be held at The University of
Queensland, Brisbane Australia between 6-16 July 1998. The courses
currently available are:

Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages
---- The Grammar of Kinship in Central Australia: Gavan Breen
---- Languages of Queensland and the Torres Strait: Bruce Rigsby
---- Morphology-Syntax Interactions in Australian languages: Joan
Bresnan & Rachel Nordlinger
Asian Languages
---- Chinese Classifiers - a Cognitive Interpretation: Kit-Ken Loke
---- Topics in Japanese Linguistics: Anthony Backhouse
---- Morphosyntactic Typology and Grammaticalization in Sino-Tibetan:
Randy LaPolla
---- The Tai and Lao languages: Anthony Diller & Wilaiwan Khanittanan
Austronesian Languages
---- Aspects of Eastern Polynesian Grammar (Maori): Ray Harlow
---- Serialising and non-serialising verbs in Oceanic: Terry Crowley
English Language
---- Descriptive Grammar of English - the Verb: Rodney Huddleston
---- Historical Syntax in an English Context: Cynthia Allen
---- Variation and Change in present-day British English grammar:
Jennifer Cheshire
Romance Languages
---- Romance Syntax & Linguistic Theory: Luigi Rizzi & Adriana
Languages in Contact
---- Language Contact Phenomena with Special Reference to
Codeswitching: Carol Myers-Scotton
---- Pidgins, creoles and other language contact varieties: Claire
Lefebvre & Jeff Siegel
---- The Interplay of Internal & External Factors in Code-switching -
the Case of Linguistic Minority Groups in Spain: Teresa Turell
Anthropological Linguistics
---- Topics in Anthropological Linguistics: William Foley
Cognitive Linguistics
---- Approaches to Grammar in Cognitive Linguistics: Arie Verhagen
---- Chinese Classifiers - a Cognitive Interpretation: Kit-Ken Loke
---- Discourse of the Mind: Shi-Xu
---- Metaphor, Mental Spaces and Discourse: Eve Sweetser
---- Speaking & Thinking: Wallace Chafe
Comparative Historical Linguistics
---- Language Change & Linguistic Reconstruction: Harold Koch
---- Computational Linguistics Corpus Linguistics: Chris Manning
---- Generating Natural Language: Robert Dale
---- Grammatical Formalisms and Grammar Engineering: Dominique Estival
Discourse Analysis
---- Discourse of the Mind: Shi-Xu
---- Speaking & Thinking: Wallace Chafe
Language Acquisition
---- Investigations in Universal Grammar: Research Methods in the
Study of the Acquisition of Syntax and Semantics: Stephen Crain
---- Second Language Acquisition: Michael Harrington
Language in Education
---- Assessment of bilingual/bicultural school age students for
possible language disorders: Alejandro Brice & Judy Montgomery
---- Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA):Anna Uhl
---- Focusing on Form in Communicative Language Teaching: Diane
---- Grammar as Science - from curiosity to science through linguistic
inquiry: Wayne O'Neil & Maya Honda
Phonetics & Phonology
---- Practical speechwave and spectrogram reading for
non-phoneticians: Helen Fraser
---- The phonology and phonetics of prosodic structure: Mary Beckman
---- Event Conceptualization and Verb Meanings: Beth Levin
---- Metaphor, Mental Spaces and Discourse: Eve Sweetser
---- Language & Gender: Janet Holmes, Anne Pauwels & Jennifer Coates
Syntax and Morphology
---- Advanced Morphology: K.P. Mohanan & Tara Mohanan
---- Approaches to Grammar in Cognitive Linguistics: Arie Verhagen
---- Morphological Productivity: Laurie Bauer
---- Morphology-Syntax Interactions in Australian languages: Joan
Bresnan & Rachel Nordlinger
---- Romance Syntax & Linguistic Theory: Luigi Rizzi & Adriana
----Ethnosyntax (Convenor: Nick Enfield) July 11
----Language & Gender (Convenors: Janet Holmes, Anne Pauwels &
Jennifer Coates) July 11
----Language & the Law (Convenors: Diana Eades & Michael Cook) July 10
----Machine Translation (Convenor: Francis Bond) July 11
----Research Issues for Cognitive Linguistics (Convenor: June
Luchjenbroers) July 10
----Symposium on Language Contact and Language Contact Induced
Linguistic Change Convenors:
Patrick McConvell & Jeff Siegel) July 10-11

Details of the courses and the presenters, plus information about:
* Brisbane and Queensland
* Some other linguistics gatherings in Brisbane in 1998
* Details on fees for ALI 98 and
* a registration form for ALI 98, ALAA 98, ALS 98, Australex 98
and Lexical Functional Grammar 98
are all available at the Web site

Please contact the relevant people mentioned in the Web site for further
details, and not me.

Peter White

EURALEX'98, 8th International Congress of the European Association for Lexicography

Date: 4.-8. August 1998
Place: Liege, Belgium

Dear Colleagues,
I have pleasure in informing you that the 8th International Congress of the
European Association for Lexicography (EURALEX'98) will take place at the
University of Liège (Belgium) from 4 to 8 August 1998. The first circular and
call for papers are available from the following URL:
I would be grateful if you could update your list of NL-related events to inform
you members about this congress.
I thank you in advance,
Best wishes
Thierry Fontenelle
European Commission
Translation Service
Development of multilingual tools
Sdt AGL04
Jean Monnet Building (JMO B2/14)
L-2920 Luxembourg

Reports On Conferences, Workshops, Etc.

  1. HPSG'97 Program
  2. LSA Institute & ESSLLI'97: The Major Syntactic Structures of French
  3. Formal Grammar 1997
  4. ESSLLI'97: Grammar Development in Constraint-Based Formalisms
  5. ESSLLI'97: Student Session

HPSG'97 Program


at the Summer Institute of the LSA
Cornell, Ithaca, NY

July 18-20, 1997

Friday, July 18, 1997

FEATURE TALK: Argument Structure, Structural Case, and French Causatives.
CARL POLLARD (Ohio State University).
Adjuncts as Complements: Evidence from Case assignment.
Adam Przepiorkowski (Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen).
Conjunctive Semantics for Adjuncts: Evidence from Rationale Infinitives.
David Baxter (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).

11:00-11:20 Coffee Break

Type-Hierarchical Analysis of Gapless Relative Clauses in Korean.
Jong-Yul Cha (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).
The internally Headed Relative Clause in Japanese
as a case of Syntactic Coercion.
Chiharu Uda (Doshisha University).
Linearization and WH-extraction in HPSG:
Evidence from a Dialect of Serbo-Croatian.
Gerald Penn (Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen).

12:50-2:30 Lunch Break

The morphosyntax of Serbo-Croatian Quantified NP's.
Stephen Wechsler (University of Texas at Austin) and
Larisa Zlatic (University of Texas at Austin).
A Lexical Approach to Quantifier Floating,
Anne Abeille (University of Paris 7) and
Daniele Godard (CNRS and University of Paris 7).
Verb-Second structures in Breton.
Bob Borsley (University of Wales, Bangor) and
Andreas Kathol (UC Berkeley).
West Greenlandic Noun Incorporation in a monohierarchical Theory of Grammar.
Rob Malouf (Stanford University).

4:30-4:50 Lemonade Break

Parallel Morpho-Syntactic Constraints in European Portuguese Cliticization.
Berthold Crysmann (University of Saarland).
Clitic Climbing in Noun Phrases.
Dimitra Kolliakou (University of Groingen and University of Newcastle).
The structure of French causatives.
Michael Calcagno (Ohio State University) and
Carl Pollard (Ohio State University).

Saturday July 19, 1997

FEATURE TALK: Competition in the Formation of Words and Phrases in Japanese.
PETER SELLS (Stanford University).
VP relatives in German.
Ehrard Hinrichs (Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen) and
Tsuneko Nakazawa (University of Tokyo).
The semantics of Relative Clause Extraposition.
Tibor Kiss (IBM Germany).

11:00-11:20 Coffee Break

The Scope-marking construction in German.
Andreas Kathol (UC Berkeley).
A syntactic analysis for wh-questions in German.
Anke Feldhaus (Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen)
Locus Agreement in American Sign Language: an HPSG analysis.
Kearsy Cormier (University of Texas at Austin).

12:50-2:30 Lunch Break

Idiomatic Constructions in HPSG.
Susanne Riehemann (Stanford University).
No one's forgotten the periphery, have they?
Emily Bender (Stanford University) and
Dan Flickinger (Stanford University).
Lexicalization of Context.
Graham Wilcock (University of Manchester and Sharp Corporation).

4:00-4:20 Lemonade Break

Grammar Acquisition by Probabilistic Model Transformation.
Eugene Koontz (SUNY-Buffalo).
Modular Integration and Interpretation of Principles in CF-PSG.
Josef van Genabith (Dublin City University)
'Inside-out' constraints and Description Language for HPSG grammars.
Jean-Pierre Koenig (SUNY-Buffalo).

HPSG-97 Party

Sunday, July 20, 1997

English Number Names in HPSG.
Jeff Smith (San Jose State University)
Long-distance reflexves and the binding square of opposition.
Antonio Branco (DFKI and University of Lisbon) and
Palmira Marrafa (University of Lisbon)
On Locality of Negative Concord in Polish and Romance.
Adam Przepiorkowski (Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen) and
Anna Kupsc (Polish Academy of Sciences and University of Paris 7)
FEATURE TALK: Antecedent Contained Ellipsis in HPSG.

11:30-2:00 Lunch Break


Polarity and interrogative form in pragmatically loaded constructions
Charles Fillmore (University of California at Berkeley)
Interrogative Constructions in English
Jonathan Ginzburg (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and
Ivan A. Sag (Stanford University)
Deconstructing Constructions and the Syntax-Discourse Interface
Ellen F. Prince (University of Pennsylvania)
The First Position in German Main Clauses: A Constructional Account
Gert Webelhuth (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

LSA Institute & ESSLLI'97: The Major Syntactic Structures of French

Two classes on French in HPSG were held this summer:

  1. 1997 Linguistic Institute (LSA), Cornell University, Ithaca, USA
    Linguistics 492.36, 4 week course, July 7-31

    "The Major Syntactic Structures of French"

    Anne Abeille' (Univ Paris 7), Danie`le Godard (CNRS, Paris), and Ivan A. Sag (Stanford)


    7/7: Overview of HPSG. Some differences between English and French. Reading: Pollard and Sag, 1997

    7/10: Overview of lexical types. Phrases and clauses. Clitics as pronominal affixes. The morphology of 'cliticization' Reading: Sag, 1997, section 3; Sag and Miller, 1997, sections 1-3. Background reading: Kayne, 1975: chapter 2; Miller, 1992: chapter 4

    7/14: Tense auxiliaries. Auxiliary selection. Clitic Climbing without movement. Reading: Abeille' & Godard, 1994 (WCCFL), Sag & Miller, 1997 section 4.1, Abeille' & Godard, 1996 (Langages, section 1-2 ) Background reading: Davies and Rosen, 1988.

    7/17: The copula. Lexical alternations: passives, reflexives, impersonals. Reading: Abeille' & Godard, 1996 (Langages, section 3); Abeille, Godard, Sag, Two kinds, 1997 section 5. Background reading: Ruwet, 1972, chapter 3 ; Alsina,1996, chapter 3-4

    7/21: Causatives. Perception verbs. Clitic climbing and clitic trapping. Reading: Two Kinds, sections 4, 5.4; Abeille, Godard, Sag, 1997 French Relative Clauses, section 6. Abeille', Godard, Miller, 1997, Langue francaise. Background reading: Kayne, 1975, chapters 3-5; Rouveret & Vergnaud, 1980; Alsina, 1996, chapter 6; Koenig, 1996, chapter 6

    7/24: Extraction: the basics. Relative Clause Constructions. 'Stylistic' Inversion. Reading: Abeille', Godard, Sag, 1997 French Relative Clauses. Background reading: Kayne and Pollock, 1978: Sag and Fodor, 1994; Sag, 1997, English relative Clause Constructions

    7/28: Negation without head movement. Adverbs: modifiers vs arguments. Reading: Kim and Sag, WCCFL 1995; Abeille' & Godard, 1996 The Syntax of French Negative Adverbs Background reading: Pollock, 1989

    7/31: Word Order and Weight Reading: Abeille' & Godard, 1997 French Word order and lexical Weight

  2. ESSLLI'97, Aix en Provence, France; 2 week course, August 11-22

    "The Major Syntactic Structures of French"

    Anne Abeille' (Univ Paris 7), Danie`le Godard (CNRS, Paris), and Philip Miller (Univ Lille)


    11/8: Overview of HPSG. Some differences between English and French. Reading: Pollard and Sag, 1997 Background reading: Pollard and Sag 1987, 1994, Abeille 1993 chap 3

    12/10: Overview of lexical types. Phrases and clauses. Reading: Sag, 1997, section 3

    13/8 Clitics as pronominal affixes. The morphology of 'cliticization' Reading: Sag & Miller, 1997, sections 1-3. Background reading: Kayne, 1975: chapter 2; Miller, 1992: chapter 4

    14/8: Tense auxiliaries. Auxiliary selection. Clitic Climbing without movement. Reading: Abeille' & Godard, 1994 (WCCFL), Sag & Miller, 1997 section 4.1, Abeille' & Godard, 1996 (Langages, section 1-2 ) Background reading: Davies and Rosen, 1988.

    15/8 The copula. Reading: Abeille' & Godard, 1996 (Langages, section 3)

    18/8: Lexical alternations: passives, reflexives, impersonals. Reading: Abeille' & Godard, 1996 (Langages, section 3); Abeille, Godard, Sag, Two kinds, 1997 section 5. Background reading: Ruwet, 1972, chapter 3 ; Alsina,1996, chapter 3-4

    19/8: Causatives. Perception verbs. Clitic climbing and clitic trapping. Reading: Two Kinds, sections 4, 5.4; Abeille, Godard, Sag, 1997 French Relative Clauses, section 6. Abeille', Godard, Miller, 1997, Langue francaise. Background reading: Kayne, 1975, chapters 3-5; Rouveret & Vergnaud, 1980; Alsina, 1996, chapter 6; Koenig, 1996, chapter 6

    20/8: Extraction: the basics. Relative Clause Constructions. Reading: Abeille', Godard, Sag, 1997 French Relative Clauses. Background reading: Kayne and Pollock, 1978: Sag and Fodor, 1994; Sag, 1997, English relative Clause Constructions

    21/8: Negation and Adverbs: modifiers vs arguments. Reading: Abeille' & Godard, 1996 The Syntax of French Negative Adverbs Background reading: Pollock, 1989

    22/8: Word Order and Weight Reading: Abeille' & Godard, 1997 French Word order and lexical Weight


    (* in the reader and the ESSLI CD-ROM)

    Abeille' A. 1993. Les Nouvelles syntaxes : grammaires d'unification et analyse du francais. Paris : Armand Colin.

    * Abeille', A & D Godard. 1994. "The Complementation of Tense Auxiliaries in French". WCCFL 13.157-172. Stanford: CSLI Publications.

    * Abeille', A & D Godard. 1996a. "La Comple'mentation des auxiliaires francais". Langages 122.32-61.

    *Abeille' A. & Godard D., 1996b. The syntax of French negative adverbs, in P. Hirschbuhler, F. Martineau (eds) Negation, J Benjamins.

    Abeille' A., Godard D., Miller P. & Sag I., 1996. Bounded Dependencies in French, in Balari S. & Dini L. (eds) HPSG in Romance, CSLI Lecture Notes. to appear

    * Abeille', A, D Godard, P Miller . 1997. "Les causatives en francais: un cas de compe'tition syntaxique". Langue francaise, to appear.

    * Abeille' A. & Godard D., 1997. French Word Order and Lexical Weight. to appear in R. Borsley (ed) Syntatic categories, Syntax and semantics, New-York: Academic Press.

    * Abeille' A., Godard D., & Sag I., 1997. Two Kinds of Composition in French complex predicates. A. Kathol, E. Hinrichs et T. Nakasawa (eds). Complex Predicates in non derivational syntax. New York: Academic press (to appear). (

    Abeille' A., Godard D., & Sag I., 1997. French relative clauses, Univeristy Paris 7 & Stanford, ms. (ask

    Alsina, A. 1996. The Role of Argument-structure in Grammar: Evidence from Romance. Stanford: CSLI Publications.

    Davies W. and C. Rosen.1988. Union as multipredicate clauses. Language: 52--89.

    Godard D 1988. La syntaxe des relatives en francais, Ed du CNRS, Paris.

    Grevisse Maurice and Andre' Goose. 1988, Le Bon usage, Lie`ge: Duculot, 12th edition.

    Kayne, Richard. 1975. French Syntax: the transformational cycle. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

    Kayne R. & Pollock J-Y 1978. Stylistic inversion, successive cyclicity, and move NP in French, Linguistic Inquiry, 9 (4): 595-621.

    Kim, J-B & I. A. Sag. 1995a. "The Parametric Variation of French and English Negation". WCCFL 14, 303-317. Stanford: CSLI Publications. (revised 96:

    Koenig, J-P. 1994. Lexical Underspecification and the syntax/semantics interface. Doctoral Dissertation, U. of California at Berkeley. [unpublished; author: jpkoenig@ACSU.Buffalo.EDU ]

    Miller, P. 1992. Clitics and Constituents in Phrase Structure Grammar. New-York: Garland.

    Pollard, C. & I. A. Sag. 1987. Information-Based Syntax and Semantics vol. 1: Fundamentals. Chicago: The Univ. of Chicago Press & Stanford: CSLI.

    Pollard, C. & I. A. Sag. 1994. Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Chicago: the University of Chicago Press, and Stanford: CSLI publications.

    *Pollard, C. & I. A. Sag. 1997. HPSG: background and basics, ms.

    Pollock, J-Y. 1989. Verb Movement, Universal Grammar and the Structure of IP. Linguistic Inquiry: 365--424.

    Rouveret, A. & J-R Vergnaud. 1980. Specifying reference to the subject: French causatives and conditions on representations. Linguistic Inquiry: 97--202.

    Ruwet Nicolas 1972. Theorie syntaxique et syntaxe du francais. Paris: Le Seuil.

    Sag, I. A. & D. Godard 1993. Extraction of de-phrases from the French NP, Proceedings of 11th NELS, 519-539.

    Sag, I. A. & Janet Fodor. 1994. Extraction without traces. WCCFL 13. 365--384. (

    * Sag, I. A. & Miller P. 1997. French clitic movement without clitic or movement, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. (

    Sag, I. A. 1997. English Relative Clause Constructions. Journal of Linguistics.

Formal Grammar 1997

The Conference on Formal Grammar 1997

"Linguistic Aspects of Logical and Computational Perspectives on Language"

took place from August 9-10 preceding the ESSLLI'97 Summer School in Aix-en-Provence, France.

The program included the following two HPSG-related presentations. The papers are published in the Proceedings of the Formal Grammar 1997 Conference, edited by Geert-Jan M. Kruijff, Glyn V. Morrill and Richard T. Oehrle.

  1. Shalom Lappin/Howard Gregory (University of London, {sl3,hg4}
    ``A Computational Model of Ellipsis Resolution'' (invited talk)

    The talk proposed a procedure for the syntactic reconstruction of ellipsis that covers (i) antecedent contained ellipsis, (ii) intersentential VP ellipsis, (iii) bare constituent ellipsis, and (iv) gapping. The procedure is head-driven, and it is implemented in a typed feature structure grammar which is a version of HPSG. It differs from most of the current approaches to ellipsis in that it does not require an abstract level of logical form as the input to the reconstruction procedure, and it reconstructs all elided elements in situ, rather than after extraction from an antecedent VP or clause. The procedure generates an AVM which specifies the reconstructed feature structure of the ellipsis site. This representation captures the primary syntactic and semantic properties of the elided elements.

  2. Detmar Meurers (Universität Tübingen,
    ``Using Lexical Principles in HPSG to Generalize over Valence Properties''

    Starting out from recent HPSG work which focuses on the lexical specification of exemplary lexical entries belonging to an intuitively understood classes of verbs, this talk provided a set of answers to the following three questions:

    Furthermore, with the advent of the ARG-S attribute in addition to the three valence attributes an additional question arises that was discussed in the talk:

    It is shown that commonly used abbreviation mechanisms fail to capture theoretical generalizations. Instead, it is discussed how implicational principles with complex antecedent of type word can be used to express the lexical generalizations. Regarding the status of the antecedent, it is argued that there are no formal reasons for preferring type antecedents and that complex descriptions as antecedents of constraints should be preferred since they can make reference to the relevant class-distinguishing information without requiring their duplication at the sign level.

    available from:

ESSLLI'97: Grammar Development in Constraint-Based Formalisms

Erhard Hinrichs and Detmar Meurers (Universität Tübingen) taught a two week introductory course at ESSLLI'97 on

"Grammar Development in Constraint-Based Formalisms"

The course introduced the theoretical concepts and implementational realization of the main ingredients of HPSG grammars: highly structured lexical representations and the encoding of universal well-formedness constraints on grammatical representations.

The course combined lectures with hands-on lab sessions in a computer pool of 20 Linux PCs. The lectures introduced the necessary formal, computational, and linguistic background, such as:

In the lab sessions, up to 40 students worked on exercises which among other things required a stepwise extension of an English grammar to include sentences with (di)transitive verbs, verbs with sentential complements, and NPs with determiners and adjectives. Other exercises resulted in a small linearization grammar for German dealing with the "free" word order in the Mittelfeld using recursive relations such as permute. The results of the exercises were discussed in class.

As computational basis of the course, the ConTroll system developed in Tübingen was used, which is now freely available from:

The system is based on the formal setup for HPSG developed by Paul King and offers both universal constraints to encode the principles (incl. complex antecedents) and relational constraints. HPSG theories can therefore often be directly implemented in ConTroll without having to recode them as phrase structure grammars or logic programs.

ESSLLI'97: Student Session

The Second ESSLLI Student Session
Chair: Alice Drewery

Among the 20 papers presented at the second ESSLLI student session in Aix-en Provence were the following three dealing with HPSG:

  1. On the Extractability from Subjects in German - An example for lexicalized UDCs
    Kordula De Kuthy

    In current linguistic theory, subject-object asymmetries in German are a much discussed issue. One of the relevant test cases is the possibility of extraction from subjects. The traditional assumption is that German in this respect behaves parallel to English in the sense that extraction from subjects should be ungrammatical. In this talk it was shown that one can account for all those cases where extraction from subjects is ungrammatical without having to postulate subject-object asymmetries for German. Instead, it was argued that mainly lexical properties of the governing head determine the possibility of extraction from its arguments. It was presented how lexical constraints in HPSG can capture the observed generalizations.

  2. A Control Analysis of Possessives
    Anne Neville

    In this talk an account of the subject-orientedness of Danish pronouns based on HPSG control theory was presented.
    Like many languages, Danish exhibits a distinction between reflexive and non-reflexive possessive pronouns, a distinction which is not covered by standard HPSG binding theory. Also, in Danish, pronouns may be divided into subject-oriented and non-subject-oriented pronouns. Once subject-orientedness is accounted for, the proposed analysis for possessives treating them as control predicates lends itself to a natural account of their binding constraints within HPSG binding theory without further extensions.

  3. Resolution of Dropped Pronouns in a Phrase Structure Grammar
    Meltem Turhan and Onur T. Sehitoglu

    In this talk intra-sentential resolution of Turkish dropped pronouns in a phrase structure grammar was presented. Turkish is pro-drop and free constituent order language. The resolution scheme fro dropped pronouns depends on the constituent order. Resolution rules for different surface orders were introduced and an implementation for an HPSG based parser was presented. The implementation is based on incremental processing of non-local referential index sets during parsing.

All three papers are published in:
Proceedings of the Second ESSLLI Student Session edited by
Alice Drewery, Geert-Jan M. Kruijff and Richard Zuber


  1. New Location of the HPSG list
  2. Shuly Wintner: new position
  3. Paola Monachesi: new position
  4. Bob Borsley: personal chair
  5. Valia Kordoni: new position
  6. Non-transformational Syntax: book announcement
  7. Announcing the HPSG-NLP System "ConTroll"
  8. Outlook on HPSG-related courses at ESSLLI'98
  9. New papers

New Location of the HPSG list

> From Andreas Kathol:

This is to announce that the HPSG list is back on-line, but at a different location:

Accordingly, the address for the listserver (for (un)subscriptionetc.) is now located at:

The setup is still somewhat provisional, so for instance, postings to the list are not currently archived.

Shuly Wintner: new position

Shuly Wintner completed his PhD in the computer science department of the Technion, Haifa on February 1997 and started a MINERVA post-doc fellowship at the Seminar für Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Tübingen, on April. The thesis abstract is included below; the complete version is available at

Paola Monachesi: new position

Paola Monachesi has moved to Utrecht University (OTS) where she will be working with Michael Moortgat on the project "Complex predicates in Romance. Principles of lexical organization and grammatical deduction."

Office address (as of September 1, 1997):

Paola Monachesi
Utrecht University
Utrecht Institute of Linguistics (OTS)
Trans 10,
NL-3512 JK Utrecht
The Netherlands


Bob Borsley: personal chair

> From Ivan Sag:

As of October 1, 1997, Bob Borsley has been awarded a Personal Chair in the School of English and Linguistics at the University of Wales, Bangor. Congratulations, Bob.

Valia Kordoni: new position

Valia Kordoni has moved to the University of Tübingen (SFS), where she will be working in the VERBMOBIL project on the construction of a treebank for the English VERBMOBIL corpus as well as manual and automatic alignment of German/English bilingual corpora.

Office address:

Valia Kordoni
Seminar für Sprachwissenschaft
Universität Tübingen
Kleine Wilhelmstr. 113
72074 Tübingen
tel. 07071-2977473
fax: 07071-550520

Non-transformational Syntax: book announcement

Bob Borsley of University of Wales Bangor and Kersti Borjars of the University of Manchester have just signed a contract with Blackwell for an edited volume on `Non-transformational Syntax: A Guide to Current Models'. This will be essentially a non-transformational counterpart of Gert Webelhuth's GB volume. Contributors will probably include Georgia Green, Carl Pollard, Bob Levine, Gert Webelhuth, Jim Blevins, Joan Bresnan, Annie Zaenen, Dick Oehrle, Mark Steedman and Mark Johnson.

Announcing the HPSG-NLP System "ConTroll"

The ConTroll System, developed at the University of Tübingen (SFB 340), is now available for public distribution at:

ConTroll is a typed-feature based system, which was specifically designed for the logic of HPSG. The system is based on implicational constraints, including constraints with complex antecedents like the HPSG Principles of Pollard and Sag (1994). Relational constraints are also supported and can be freely interleaved with the principles. The system comes with a sophisticated graphical interface, debugger and general grammar development environment.

Outlook on HPSG-related courses at ESSLLI 98

The following HPSG-related courses will be offered at ESSLLI-98, to be held from 17.-28. August 1998 at Saarbrücken, Germany.

  1. Practical HPSG Grammar Engineering (Introductory Course)
    Ann Copestake, Dan Flickinger (CSLI Stanford) and Stephan Oepen (Univ. Saarbrücken)

    The implementation of linguistically based grammars for natural languages draws on a combination of engineering skills, sound grammatical theory, and software development tools. This course provides a hands-on introduction to the techniques and tools needed for building the precise, extensible grammars required both in research and in applications. Through a combination of lectures and in-class exercises, students will investigate the implementation of constraints in morphology, syntax, and semantics, working within the unification-based lexicalist framework of Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Topics to be addressed in the course include the use of types and features, monotonic vs. default inheritance, usability for both parsing and generation, efficiency, and the use of test suites for evaluating progress. The daily implementation exercises will include experience with adding and repairing lexical types, lexical entries, lexical rules, phrase structure schemata, compositional semantic constraints, and testing data.

  2. Constructions - an HPSG Perspective
    Andreas Kathol (UC Berkeley) and Ivan A. Sag (Stanford Univ.)

    This course reviews a number of developments in HPSG that are convergent with recent work in such other traditions as Fillmore and Kay's Construction Grammar. This new perspective on phrases uses multiple inheritance hierarchies to express cross-cutting generalizations about syntactic phrases, in the process providing coverage of a broader range of phenomena than has previously been treated in HPSG grammars.
    The primary focus of this course will be English clausal (declarative, interrogative, relative and imperative) constructions, as analyzed by Sag, Ginzburg, Malouf and others. There will also be a secondary focus on issues raised by Kathol's related work on German clausal constructions and also on the comparative perspective provided by work on French by Abeille et al. and other studies that might be available by the time of ESSLLI.
    The theoretical framework presented in this course has been the basis for the grammar implementation effort of CSLI's ERGO project. The implementation-oriented course proposed by Oepen, Flickinger and Copestake will be coordinated with this more theoretically oriented course. The intention is to use our work in HPSG to provide an example of the relation between linguistic theory and computational practice. This course will presuppose some background in syntax and some background in logic, but will not presuppose an in depth background in HPSG.

  3. Current topics in constraint-based theories of Germanic syntax (Workshop)
    Tibor Kiss (IBM Heidelberg) and Detmar Meurers (Univ. Tübingen)

    The workshop is intended as a forum for presenting constraint-based approaches exploring empirical and formal issues of the syntax of Germanic languages (excluding English). A call for papers will be distributed by November 1.

  4. Unification-Based Linguistic Formalisms (Introductory course)
    Shuly Wintner (Univ. Tübingen)

    The course aims at introducing some of the major formalisms used in computational linguistics nowadays, providing both the necessary mathematical background and the linguistic motivation.

    1. Introduction
      1. Context-Free Grammars
      2. Their inadequacy for describing natural languages
      3. Informal survey of feature structures (Shieber 86)
      4. PATR
    2. A theory of feature structures (rigorously formulated)
      1. Feature structures
      2. Subsumption and unification
      3. Multi-rooted structures
    3. Survey of Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) (Dalrymple et. al. 95)
      1. The general framework
      2. Functional control
      3. Long-distance dependencies
      4. Functional uncertainty
    4. Typed feature structures (Carpenter 92)
      1. Type hierarchies, inheritance and appropriateness
      2. Typed feature structures, subsumption, unification
    5. Survey of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) (Pollard&Sag 1994).
      1. The general architecture
      2. Principles
    6. Additional issues as time permits: Description logics for linguistic formalisms Implementations

New papers

A revised (Sept. 97) version of the textbook:

Syntactic Theory: A Formal Introduction
by Ivan A. Sag and Thomas Wasow

is now available on-line at
Comments are welcome.

Also now available:

  1. Two Kinds of Composition in French Complex Predicates
    Anne Abeille, Daniele Godard, and Ivan A. Sag

  2. French Clitic Movement Without Clitics or Movement (final version of August, 1997)
    Philip Miller and Ivan A. Sag

Abstracts of Papers, MA and Ph.D. Projects

  1. Tania Avgustinova, completed Ph.D. thesis (University of Saarland):
    "Word Order and Clitics in Bulgarian"
  2. Tibor Kiss, unpublished manuscript:
    "Notes from the border: Scope and Variable Binding in German"
  3. Cornelia Maria Verspoor, completed Ph.D. thesis (University of Edinburgh):
    "Contextually-Dependent Lexical Semantics"
  4. Shuly Wintner, completed D.Sc. thesis (Technion - Israel Institute of Technology):
    "An Abstract Machine for Unification Grammars"
  5. Kei Yoshimoto, completed dissertation (IMS, University of Stuttgart):
    "Tense and Aspect in Japanese and English"
  6. Larisa Zlatic, completed Ph.D. thesis (University of Texas at Austin):
    "The Structure of the Serbian Noun Phrase"
  7. Say Kiat Ng, completed MSc thesis (University of Edinburgh):
    "A double-specifier account of Chinese NPs using HPSG"

Tania Avgustinova, completed Ph.D. thesis (Universität des Saarlandes):
"Word Order and Clitics in Bulgarian"

This thesis is concerned with Bulgarian word-order phenomena involving clitics. It grew out of an interest in the way considerable word-order variance is achieved in a language exhibiting an impoverished declension system in combination with a well-developed mechanism for clitic replication. Across the languages, clitics' behaviour varies from that of word affixes to the autonomy of independent syntactic forms; in this respect, the intermediate status of Bulgarian clitics is particularly interesting.

As theoretical framework, the Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) is chosen, due to its essential property of offering a multidimensional, but nevertheless integral, sign-based representation of linguistic objects. The complexity of structural relations within the Bulgarian verb complex questions the adequacy and universal validity of lexicalist approaches to the treatment of clitics. The proposed analysis is based on a variant of HPSG that provides an additional morphosyntactic dimension for modelling analytic verb morphology and cliticisation. Once the step towards admitting the existence of morphosyntactic constituency is made, the language description gains in explanatory power and transparency with respect to a number of phenomena belonging to the vague "interface" area between the lexicon and syntax proper. The morphosyntactic grammar module distinguishes the Bulgarian language in the Slavic family, which illustrates that in HPSG the parametrisation of linguistic and cross-linguistic variation can occur in the grammar.

As a prerequisite for interpreting clitic replication on the clausal level, a typology of Bulgarian articled and non-articled NPs is developed, which provides criteria for determining the replication potential of nominal material. Clitic replication of full-fledged NP-complements has a communicatively-driven syntactic dimension and deserves special attention as a factor influencing the constituent order variation in the Bulgarian sentence. The proposed model of accusative clitic replication in the S-V-O sentence type, and accusative and dative clitic replication in the S-V-O1-O2 sentence type is capable of predicting when clitic replication is impossible, when it is obligatory, and when it is only optional.

Even though the linguistic research carried out in this work is strongly motivated by the need for an explicit formal description of Bulgarian constituent structure and word order for computer implementation, the formal issues have been moved to the second plan, with the intention of making the analysis comprehensible for the broadest possible circles of readers with a background in Slavistics. The lack of stress on formalisation, however, does not imply that the theory presented cannot be formalised. The fact that it has been successfully implemented in the form of a parser underlying an experimental grammar-checker for Bulgarian shows that a rigorous formalisation is indeed possible.

Dr. Tania Avgustinova
Computational Linguistics, Universität des Saarlandes
Postfach 151150, 66041 Saarbrücken, Germany,
phone: (+49) (681) 302.4504, fax: (+49) (681) 302.4700

Tibor Kiss (IBM Heidelberg), unpublished manuscript:
"Notes from the border: Scope and Variable Binding in German"

(Submitted for publication to Language, available from

In German, the scope determination of quantifiers and quantifying adverbials depends on word order variations. Variable binding, on the other hand, seems to be mostly constrained by configurational properties. We will present an analysis of scope determination and variable binding in German which does not rely on quantifier raising to determine scope. Here, scope is determined by considering both configurational and relational properties of a quantifier, i.e. by considering the grammatical function of the quantifier in relation to the grammatical functions of other quantifiers. It turns out then that the empirical observations about quantifier scope in German can be derived from the assumption that the nuclear scope of a quantifier can either be the semantic contri-bution of its syntactic sister or a more oblique grammatical function. Moreover, the analysis predicts that a quantifier may take wide scope over another quantifier but still is not able to bind a variable depending on the lower quantifier. The analysis is settled within Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar, but assumes an alternative event-based theory of semantics.

PD Dr. Tibor Kiss, IBM Germany WT, Vangerowstr. 18
D-69115 Heidelberg, +49-6221-594483 -3400 (fax)
Alles was man sagen kann, kann man klar sagen.

Cornelia Maria Verspoor, completed Ph.D. thesis (University of Edinburgh):
"Contextually-Dependent Lexical Semantics"

This thesis is an investigation of phenomena at the interface between syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, with the aim of arguing for a view of semantic interpretation as lexically-driven yet contextually dependent. I examine regular, generative processes which operate over the lexicon to induce verbal sense shifts, and discuss the interaction of these processes with the linguistic or discourse context. I concentrate on phenomena where only an interaction between all three linguistic knowledge sources can explain the constraints on verb use: conventionalized lexical semantic knowledge constrains productive syntactic processes, while pragmatic reasoning is both constrained by and constrains the potential interpretations given to certain verbs. The phenomena which are closely examined are the behavior of PP sentential modifiers (specifically dative and directional PPs) with respect to the lexical semantic representation of the verb phrases they modify, resultative constructions, and logical metonymy.

The analysis is couched in terms of a lexical semantic representation drawing on Davis (1995), Jackendoff (1983, 1990), and Pustejovsky (1991, 1995) which aims to capture "linguistically relevant" components of meaning. The representation is shown to have utility for modelling of the interaction between the syntactic form of an utterance and its meaning. I introduce a formalization of the representation within the framework of Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (Pollard and Sag 1994), and rely on the model of discourse coherence proposed by Lascarides and Asher (1992), Discourse in Commonsense Entailment. I furthermore discuss the implications of the contextual dependency of semantic interpretation for lexicon design and computational processing in Natural Language Understanding systems.

The dissertation is available from

Shuly Wintner, completed D.Sc. thesis (Technion - Israel Institute of Technology):
"An Abstract Machine for Unification Grammars"

Supervisor: Prof. Nissim Francez

Contemporary linguistic formalisms have become so rigorous that it is now possible to view them as very high level declarative programming languages. Consequently, grammars for natural languages can be viewed as programs; this view enables the application of various methods and techniques that were proved useful for programming languages to the study of natural languages.

One of the most successful implementation techniques for logic programming languages involves the use of an abstract machine. In this approach one defines an abstract machine with the following properties: it is close enough to the high-level language, thus allowing efficient compilation to the abstract machine language; and it is sufficiently low-level to allow efficient interpretation of the machine instructions on a variety of host architectures. Abstract machines were used for processing procedural and functional languages, but they gained much popularity for logic programming languages since the introduction of the Warren Abstract Machine (WAM). Most current implementations of Prolog, as well as other logic languages, are based on abstract machines. The incorporation of such techniques usually leads to very efficient compilers in terms of both space and time requirements.

In this work we have designed and implemented an abstract machine, Amalia, for the linguistic formalism ALE, which is based on typed feature structures. This formalism is one of the most widely accepted in computational linguistics and has been used for designing grammars in various linguistic theories, most notably HPSG. Amalia is composed of data structures and a set of instructions, augmented by a compiler from the grammatical formalism to the abstract instructions, and a (portable) interpreter of the abstract instructions. The effect of each instruction is defined using a low-level language that can be executed on ordinary hardware.

The advantages of the abstract machine approach are twofold. From a theoretical point of view, the abstract machine gives a well-defined operational semantics to the grammatical formalism. This ensures that grammars specified using our system are endowed with well defined meaning. It enables, for example, to formally verify the correctness of a compiler for HPSG, given an independent definition. From a practical point of view, Amalia is the first system that employs a direct compilation scheme for unification grammars that are based on typed feature structures. The use of Amalia results in a much improved performance over existing systems.

In order to test the machine on a realistic application, we have developed a small-scale, HPSG-based grammar for a fragment of the Hebrew language, using Amalia as the development platform. This is the first application of HPSG to a Semitic language.

Kei Yoshimoto, completed dissertation (IMS, University of Stuttgart):
"Tense and Aspect in Japanese and English"

The principal novel points of the dissertation are as follows:

First, it addresses the issue of how to formulate DRS's for the Japanese predicates with and without the aspectual marker TE IRU. First I give reasons why a cross-classification of aspect meanings is adopted, and then apply this to formalization of the aspect meanings of the TE IRU-form and Aktionsarten of verbs. Since this way of semantic specification produces ambiguous DRS's very frequently, I take up the problem of their disambiguation on the hypothesis that each verb follows a strong tendency to take either a progressive or resultative reading. It is demonstrated that actual linguistic data evidence this tendency, and I explore a way to apply this idea to ambiguity resolution.

Second, tense in complex sentences is dealt with. Japanese lacks in CONSECUTIO TEMPORUM (sequence of tense) which is found in English; its subordinate clause tense has a minimal specification which must be interpreted in relation to the tense in the matrix sentence. Minami's (1974) subordinate clause classification is applied to understanding of tense embedded in this type of syntactic structure. I also show that topic and focus, which behave under the strong influence of Minami's hierarchical classification, can be explained convincingly by using the same framework.

Third, the paper addresses the issues of transfer rules in Japanese- English machine translation. I propose rules for transfer of tense and aspect information in DRS's produced by input Japanese sentence analysis to DRS's corresponding to English sentences to be generated.

Lastly, I exhibit the result of an implementation of the rules proposed in the preceding chapters using Typed Feature System developed at the University of Stuttgart (Emele and Zajac 1990, Zajac 1992).

Graduate School of International Cultural Studies
Tohoku University
Kawauchi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-77, Japan
E-mail address:

Larisa Zlatic, completed Ph.D. thesis (University of Texas at Austin):
"The Structure of the Serbian Noun Phrase"

Supervisors: Ileana Comorovski & Stephen Wechsler

In this dissertation I examine the internal syntax of noun phrases in Serbian. Based on headedness tests and word order patterns, I show that noun phrases in Serbian, a language with no articles, are headed by a Noun and not by a functional category, Determiner. I claim that headedness is a language specific property, related to the presence/absence of definite/indefinite articles in a given language.

I show that the semantic class of determiners employed in Serbian corresponds to a syntactic category, Adjective. I further show that the semantic notion of a quantifier corresponds to two syntactic categories in Serbian, an adjective or a noun, and not to a functional category, Q(uantifier). I point out that there is no empirical evidence that Serbian inflectional affixes, marking number, gender and case form their own functional projections. Thus, the functional categories used by many researchers working in a derivational framework to account for word order variation, cannot be used to account for word order in the Serbian noun phrase. Rather, I show that a non-derivational theory, such as Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, is more suitable for explaining both the word order and agreement facts pertaining to the Serbian noun phrase.

I also discuss in this dissertation the argument structure and case-assigning properties of nouns. I illustrate how the semantic distinction between process and result nominals is reflected morphologically and syntactically in Serbian. I show that binding relations are sensitive to this semantic distinction, whereby only subjects of process nominals count as obligatory binders of reflexives, paralleling the obligatory binding of reflexives by clausal subjects. An argument-structure based binding theory is proposed that accounts for these facts. With respect to case, I distinguish between structural and inherent case. In particular, I show that genitive case, assigned by nouns, is structural in Serbian; all other cases assigned by nouns are inherent. Nominalization and word order facts provide the evidence for this distinction.

Say Kiat Ng, completed MSc thesis (University of Edinburgh):
"A double-specifier account of Chinese NPs using HPSG"

This thesis concerns an analysis of the structure of Chinese NPs with respect to the Demonstrative (Dem), the Classifier Phrase (CLP) and the head noun (N) using Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG). We argue that a single schema - the Specifier-Head Schema - suffices to account for these aspects of the Chinese NP.

Through the analysis of the English those three books, we postulate a double-specifier hypothesis of X-bar theory and are able to predict a number of interesting results. For example, we can explain why three only selects books but not book. Using the hypothesis as a springboard, we demonstrate that the Chinese Dem-CLP-N structure can be accounted for singly by the Specifier-Head Schema. We also counter the claim that the numeral-classifier sequence is an inseparable unit. By typing classifiers, we can predict in a consistent manner whether an item can intervene in the numeral-classifier sequence. We also argue that Chinese noun phrases encode number via the numerals and certain classifiers, not via the noun since the nouns themselves are invariant with respect to the number distinction.

Finally, the analysis has been tested computationally through an implementation in ALE. Results consistent with the analysis are obtained, suggesting that it is both practical and accurate.

Say Kiat Ng
Department of Linguistics
University of Edinburgh
Adam Ferguson Building
George Square
Edinburgh EH8 9LL, UK
E-mail address:

Bibliographic Information

The following is the alphabetical list of the bibliographical information
submitted to Stefan Müller's HPSG Bibliography page at

since the previous issue of the Gazette. The full HPSG bibliography
can be found at the above address.


@techreport{Avgustinova:96, author = "Tania Avgustinova", email = "", homepage = "", institution = "Universit{\"a}t Saarbr{\"u}cken", number = "{Nr. 71}", title = "Relative Clause Constructions in {Bulgarian HPSG}", type = "CLAUS-Report", url = "", year = "1996" }


@techreport{Avgustinova:Oliva:96, author = "Tania Avgustinova and Karel Oliva", institution = "Universit{\"a}t Saarbr{\"u}cken", number = "{Nr. 70}", title = "Unbounded Dependencies in {HPSG} without Traces or Lexical Rules", type = "CLAUS-Report", url = "", year = "1996" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@unpublished{Copestake:Flickinger:ea:97, author = "Ann Copestake and Dan Flickinger and Ivan A. Sag", title = "Minimal Recursion Semantics: an introduction", url = "", url_checked = "06.22.97", year = "1997" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@techreport{Flickinger:Nerbonne:91, address = "Saarbr{\"u}cken", author = "Daniel Flickinger and John Nerbonne", institution = "DFKI", month = "September", number = "RR-91-30", title = "Inheritance and Complementation: A Case Study of Easy Adjectives and Related Nouns", type = "Research Report", url = "", year = "1991" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@mastersthesis{Fouvry:95, address = "Leuven, Belgium", author = "Frederik Fouvry", email = "", homepage = "", month = "June", school = "Faculteit Wetenschappen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven", title = "Een {H}ead-{D}riven {P}hrase {S}tructure {G}rammar voor het {N}ederlands in de {A}ttribute {L}ogic {E}ngine", year = "1995" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@article{Gao:94, author = "Qian Gao", journal = "Linguistics", pages = "475--510", title = "{Chinese NP} Structure", volume = "32", year = "1994" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Gao:96, author = "Qian Gao", booktitle = "Proceedings of NACCL 7", title = "A Lexical Ruleless Approach to {Chinese} Grammar", year = "1996" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@unpublished{Gao:In-progress, author = "Qian Gao", title = "Argument Structure, {HPSG}, and {Chinese} Grammar", year = "In progress" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Goetz:Meurers:97, address = "Madrid, Spain", author = "Thilo G\"otz and Walt Detmar Meurers", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the ACL and the 8th Conference of the EACL", email = "", homepage = "", title = "Interleaving universal principles and relational constraints over typed feature logic", url = "", year = "1997" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Goetz:Meurers:97b, address = "Madrid, Spain", author = "Thilo G\"otz and Walt Detmar Meurers", booktitle = "Proceedings of the Workshop ``Computational Environments for Grammar Development and Linguistic Engineering (ENVGRAM)'' held in conjunction with the 35th Annual Meeting of the ACL and 8th Conference of the EACL", email = "", homepage = "", title = "The {ConTroll} System as Large Grammar Development Platform", url = "", year = "1997" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@book{Grover:Vallduv:96, address = "Scotland", editor = "Claire Grover and Enric Vallduv{\'\i}", month = "May", publisher = "Centre for Cognitive Science, University of Edinburgh", title = "Edinburgh Working Papers in Cognitive Science, Vol.~12: Studies in {HPSG}", url = "", url_checked = "08.30.97", year = "1996" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@techreport{Hinrichs:Meurers:ea:97, address = "T\"ubingen, Germany", author = "Erhard Hinrichs and Walt Detmar Meurers and Frank Richter and Manfred Sailer and Heike Winhart", email = "", homepage = "", institution = "SFB 340, Universit\"at T\"ubingen", month = "April", number = "95", title = "Ein HPSG-Fragment des Deutschen. Teil 1: Theorie", url = "", year = "1997" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@unpublished{Kiss:97, author = "Tibor Kiss", email = "", homepage = "", month = "July", title = "Notes from the border: Scope and Variable Binding in German", url = "", year = "1997" }


@inproceedings{Li:96, address = "Singapore", author = "Wei Li", booktitle = "Proceedings of International Conference on Chinese Computing (ICCC'96)", title = "Interaction of Syntax and Semantics in Parsing {Chinese} Transitive Patterns", year = "1996" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Li:To-appear, address = "Vancouver, Canada", author = "Wei Li", booktitle = "Proceedings of North West Linguistics Conference 1997", title = "Outline of an {HPSG}-style reversible {Chinese} grammar", year = "To appear" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Li:McFetridge:95, address = "Brisbane, Australia", author = "Wei Li and Paul McFetridge", booktitle = "Proceedings of PACLING-II", title = "Handling {Chinese NP} predicate in {HPSG}", year = "1995" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Liu:96, address = "Singapore", author = "Gang Liu", booktitle = "Proceedings of International Conference on Chinese Computing (ICCC'96)", title = "On Serial Verbs in {Chinese} and Their Representation in {HPSG}", year = "1996" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@incollection{Manning:Sag:ea:To-appear, address = "Cambridge", author = "Christopher Manning and Ivan A. Sag and Masayo Iida", booktitle = "Readings in Modern Phrase Structure Grammar", editor = "Robert Levine and Georgia Green", publisher = "Cambridge University Press", title = "The Lexical Integrity of Japanese Causatives", url = "", url_checked = "06.22.97", year = "To appear" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Meurers:97, author = "Walt Detmar Meurers", title = "Statusrektion und Wortstellung in koh\"arenten Infinitkonstruktionen des Deutschen", editor = "Erhard Hinrichs and Walt Detmar Meurers and Frank Richter and Manfred Sailer and Heike Winhart", homepage = "", number = "95", pages = "189--248", url = "", url_checked = "05.24.97", year = "1997" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Meurers:97b, address = "Aix-en-Provence, France", author = "Walt Detmar Meurers", booktitle = "Proceedings of the Third Conference on Formal Grammar", email = "", homepage = "", title = "Using lexical principles in {HPSG} to generalize over valence properties", url = "", year = "1997" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Mueller:To-appear, author = "Stefan M{\"u}ller", booktitle = "Proceedings of Formal Grammar, Aix-en-Provence", email = "", homepage = "", title = "An {HPSG}-Analysis for Free Relative Clauses in {German}", url = "", year = "To appear" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@techreport{Netter:91, address = "Saarbr{\"u}cken", author = "Klaus Netter", homepage = "", institution = "DFKI GmbH", number = "RR-91-21", title = "Clause Union and Verb Raising Phenomena in German", type = "Research Report", url = "", year = "1991" }


@inproceedings{Netter:Kasper:ea:94, address = "Paris", author = "Netter, Klaus and Kasper, Robert and Kiefer, Bernd and Vijay-Shanker, Krishnamurti", booktitle = "In: 3$^e$ Colloque International sur les Grammaires d'Arbres Adjoints.~(TAG+\,3). Rapport Technique TALANA-RT-94-01", pages = "77-82", title = "HPSG and TAG", url = "", year = "1994" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@incollection{Richter:97, address = "T\"ubingen, Germany", author = "Frank Richter", booktitle = "Ein HPSG-Fragment des Deutschen. Teil 1: Theorie", chapter = "2", email = "", editor = "Erhard Hinrichs and Walt Detmar Meurers and Frank Richter and Manfred Sailer and Heike Winhart", homepage = "", month = "April", pages = "13--188", publisher = "SFB 340, Universit\"at T\"ubingen", title = "Die Satzstruktur des Deutschen und die Behandlung langer Abhängigkeiten in einer Linearisierungsgrammatik. Formale Grundlagen und Implementierung in einem HPSG-Fragment", url = "", volume = "95", year = "1997" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@techreport{Riezler:95, author = "Stefan Riezler", homepage = "", institution = "Universit\"a{}t Saarbr\"u{}cken", number = "{Nr. 50}", title = "Binding without Hierarchies", type = "CLAUS-Report", url = "", year = "1995" }


@article{Sag:Miller:To-appear, author = "Ivan A. Sag and Philip H. Miller", email = "", journal = "Natural Language and Linguistic Theory", title = "French Clitic Movement without Clitics or Movement", url = "", url_checked = "04.13.97", year = "To appear" }


@incollection{Sailer:97, address = "T\"ubingen, Germany", author = "Manfred Sailer", booktitle = "Ein HPSG-Fragment des Deutschen. Teil 1: Theorie", chapter = "4", email = "", editor = "Erhard Hinrichs and Walt Detmar Meurers and Frank Richter and Manfred Sailer and Heike Winhart", homepage = "", month = "April", pages = "249--318", publisher = "SFB 340, Universit\"at T\"ubingen", title = "Adjunkte in einer Linearisierungsgrammatik: Syntax, Semantik und Wortstellung", url = "", volume = "95", year = "1997" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@incollection{Winhart:97, address = "T\"ubingen, Germany", author = "Heike Winhart", booktitle = "Ein HPSG-Fragment des Deutschen. Teil 1: Theorie", chapter = "5", email = "", editor = "Erhard Hinrichs and Walt Detmar Meurers and Frank Richter and Manfred Sailer and Heike Winhart", month = "April", pages = "319--384", publisher = "SFB 340, Universit\"at T\"ubingen", title = "Die Nominalphrase in einem HPSG-Fragment des Deutschen", url = "", volume = "95", year = "1997" }


@inproceedings{Xue:McFetridge:95, author = "Ping Xue and Paul McFetridge", booktitle = "Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Canadian Linguistics Association", publisher = "University of Toronto Press", title = "{DP} Structure, {HPSG}, and the {Chinese NP}", year = "1995" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Xue:McFetridge:96, author = "Ping Xue and Paul McFetridge", booktitle = "Proceedings of the Conference of Chicago Lingusitic Society", title = "Complement Structure in Chinese", year = "1996" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@unpublished{Xue:McFetridge:96b, author = "Ping Xue and Paul McFetridge", note = "Presented at Canadian Linguistics Conference 1996", title = "The Structure of {Chinese NP}", year = "1996" } ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

@inproceedings{Xue:McFetridge:To-appear, author = "Ping Xue and Paul McFetridge", booktitle = "Proceedings of the West Coast Conference on Formal Lingusitics", title = "Verb Complementation, Null Pronominals and Binding", year = "To appear" }

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